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마태복음 1장 6절
마태복음 1장 6절 KJY : And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Uriah; NASB : Jesse was the father of David the king. David was the father of Solomon by Bathsheba who had been the wife of Uriah. ESV : and Jesse the father of David the king. And David was the father of Solomon by the wife of Uriah, NIV : and Jesse the father of King David. David was the father of Solomon, whose mother had been Uriah's wife, 개역개정 : 이새는 다윗왕을 낳으니라. 다윗은 우리야의 아내에게서 솔로몬을 낳고 개역한글 : 이새는 다윗왕을 낳으니라. 다윗은 우리야의 아내에게서 솔로몬을 낳고 공동번역 : 이새는 다윗 왕을 낳았다. 다윗은 우리야의 아내에게서 솔로몬을 낳고, 표준새번역 : 이새는 다윗 왕을 낳았다. 다윗은 우리야의 아내에게서 솔로몬을 낳고, 쉬운성경 : 이새는 다윗을 낳고, 다윗은 솔로몬을 낳았습니다. 솔로몬의 어머니는 우리야의 아내, 밧세바였습니다. 우리말 성경 : 이새는 다윗 왕을 낳았습니다. 다윗은 원래 우리야의 아내였던 여인에게서 솔로몬을 낳고 Greek : Ἰ.εσ.σαὶ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Δαυ.εὶδ τὸν βα.σι.λέ.α. Δαυ.εὶδ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Σο.λο.μῶ.να ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐ.ρί.ου, - Ἰεσσαί (Iessai, 2421) (Ἰεσσαῖος in Joseph.), ὁ, (יִשַׁי [cf. B. D. Am. ed. s. v.]), Jesse, the father of David the king (1 S. xvi. 1, 10; xvii. 12 Alex.; xx. 27): Mt. i. 5 sq.; Lk. iii. 32; Acts xiii. 22; Ro. xv. 12.* - δέ (de, 1161) (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96; WH. App. p. 146; W. § 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opp. to a preceding statement: ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε... ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε, Mt. vi. 14 sq.; ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμὸς κτλ. Mt. vi. 23; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, Mk. ii. 20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of, — either with strong emphasis: ἐγὼ δέ, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Co. i. 23; 2 Co. x. 13; σὺ δέ, Mt. vi. 6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mk. viii. 29; οἰ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Mt. viii. 12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες... ὁ δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρ. Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58; πᾶς ὁ λαὸς... οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι, Lk. vii. 29 sq.; ὁ δὲ πνευματικός, 1 Co. ii. 15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, ὁ δέ, αὐτὸς δέ: Mk. i. 45; v. 34; vi. 37; vii. 6; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52; xv. 23 sqq.; Lk. iv. 40, 43; v. 16; vi. 8; viii. 10, 54; xv. 29; οἱ δέ, Mt. ii. 5; Mk. iii. 4; viii. 28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a prop. name, as ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς: Mt. viii. 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; ix. 12 [R G Tr br.], 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; xiii. 57; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.]; ἀποκρ. δὲ (ὁ) Σίμων, Lk. vii. 43 R G L br.; ἡ δὲ Μαρία, Lk. ii. 19, etc. 2. μὲν... δέ, see μέν. 3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (Germ. wohl aber): Mt. vi. 19 sq. (μὴ θησαυρίζετε... θησαυρίζετε δέ); x. 5 sq.; Acts xii. 9, 14; Ro. iii. 4; iv. 5; 1 Co. i. 10; vii. 37; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec.]; Eph. iv. 14 sq.; Heb. ii. 5 sq.; iv. 13, 15; ix. 12; x. 26 sq.; xii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 12 (οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς ὑμῖν [Rec. ἡμ.] δέ); Jas. i. 13 sq.; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boast of and strive after, but δικαιοσ. διὰ πίστεως); Ro. ix. 30; 1 Co. ii. 6 (σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτον); Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Phil. ii. 8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 361 sq.; L. Dindorf in Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928; [cf. W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Mt. i. 18; ii. 19; x. 21; Lk. xii. 13; xiii. 1; Jn. vii. 14, 37; Acts vi. 1; Ro. viii. 28; 1 Co. vii. 1; viii. 1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: Jn. iii. 19; vi. 39; 1 Co. i. 12; vii. 6, 29; Eph. v. 32, etc.; — esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mk. v. 13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L br.); xv. 25; xvi. 8 [R G]; Jn. vi. 10; ix. 14; xii. 3; τοῦτο δὲ γέγονε, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the Mss. (of prof. writ. also) with γάρ; cf. Winer on Gal. i. 11; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2; also his Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196; [W. 452 (421); B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. W. 443 (412)]: Mt. iii. 4; Lk. iv. 1; Ro. v. 8; 2 Co. ii. 12; v. 8; x. 2; Eph. ii. 4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts xi. 17 R G (1 Macc. xiv. 29, 2 Macc. i. 34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Col. i. 22 (21); cf. Matthiae ii. 1470; Kühner ii. 818; [Jelf § 770]; Klotz u. s. p. 370 sq.; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. καὶ... δέ, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Mt. x. 18; xvi. 18; Lk. ii. 35 [WH txt. om. L Tr br. δέ]; Jn. vi. 51; xv. 27; Acts iii. 24; xxii. 29; Ro. xi. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 12; 1 Jn. i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. C45 sq.; B. 364 (312); [also W. 443 (413); Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. καὶ ἐὰν δέ yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 11; xviii. 25; Mk. iv. 34; Lk. x. 31; Acts xvii. 6; xxviii. 6; Gal. iii. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Mt. x. 18; Jn. vi. 51; viii. 16 sq.; 1 Jn. i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 L T Tr WH]. - γεννάω (gennaō, 1080), -ῶ; fut. γεννήσω; 1 aor. ἐγέννησα; pf. γεγέννηκα; [Pass., pres. γεννάομαι, -ῶμαι]; pf. γεγέννημαι; 1 aor. ἐγεννήθην; (fr. γέννα, poetic for γένος); in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down; in Sept. for יָלַד; to beget; 1. properly: of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16; Acts vii. 8, 29; foll. by ἐκ with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57; xxiii. 29; Jn. xvi. 21; εἰς δουλείαν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lcian. de sacrif. 6; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; al.; Sept. Is. lxvi. 9; 4 Macc. x. 2, etc.). Pass. to be begotten: τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθέν that which is begotten in her womb, Mt. i. 20; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 (250); B. 203 (176)]; xix. 12; xxvi. 24; Mk. xiv. 21; Lk. i. 35; Jn. iii. 4; [Acts vii. 20]; Ro. ix. 11; Heb. xi. 23; with the addition εἰς τὸν κόσμον, Jn. xvi. 21; foll. by ἐν with dat. of place, Acts xxii. 3; ἀπό τινος, to spring from one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. ἐγενήθ. see Tdf. ad loc.]; εκ τινος to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16; ἐκ πορνείας, Jn. viii. 41; ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός, Jn. i. 13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ὅλος, Jn. ix. 34 (see ἁμαρτία, 2 a.); εἴς τι, to be born for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adj.: τυφλὸς γεγέννημαι, Jn. ix. 2, 19 sq. 32; Ῥωμαῖος to be supplied, Acts xxii. 28; τῇ διαλέκτω, ἐν ῇ ἐγεννήθημεν, Acts ii. 8; γεννηθεὶς κατὰ σάρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατὰ πνεῦμα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite: μάχας, 2 Tim. ii. 23 (βλάβην, λύπην, etc. in Grk. writ.). b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ὑμάς ἐγέννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 “If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him”; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, it is used of God making Christ his son; α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ), viz. by the resurrection: Acts xiii. 33. β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but cf. the Comm. on the pass. that follow]: Heb. i. 5; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Ep. of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absol.: 1 Jn. v. 1; mostly in pass., ἐκ θεοῦ or ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν, γεγέννηται, γεγεννημένος, etc.: Jn. i. 13; 1 Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.st γεγένηται]; iii. 9; iv. 7; v. 1, 4, 18; also ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], 8; ἐξ ὕδατος και πνεύματος (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff’s Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and reff. s. v. βάπτισμα, 3]), Jn. iii. 5; ἄνωθεν γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see ἄνωθεν, c.) equiv. to τέκνον θεοῦ γίνεσθαι, i. 12. [Comp.: ἀνα-γεννάω.]* - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, xvii. 17; ἡ κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος, Jn. vii. 6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῥήμασιν, Jn. v. 47; ἡ ἐμη διδαχή, vii. 16; τὴν σὴν λαλιάν, iv. 42), yet this is always done by the other Ν. Τ. writ., Mt. xviii. 20; Mk. viii. 38; Lk. ix. 26; Acts xxiv. 6 [Rec]; xxvi. 5; Ro. iii. 7, etc. c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive, — as τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον, Gal. vi. 5; ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xii. 35; τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν, Jn. vii. 24; ἡ ἀγαθὴ μέρις, Lk. x. 42; τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Lk. xii. 10; Acts i. 8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, Jn. xvii. 3, and many other exx.; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, Mk. iii. 29; Jn. xiv. 26; Acts i. 16; Heb. iii. 7; ix. 8; x. 15; ἡ ζωὴ ἡ αἰώνιος, 1 Jn. i. 2; ii. 25; ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, Jn. x. 11; τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν, Acts xii. 10, and other exx.; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts [xiv. 10 R G]; xxvi. 24; 1 Co. xi. 5, [cf. B. § 125, 5; W. § 20, 1 c.]. As to the adjectives of quantity, ὅλος, πᾶς, πολύς, see each in its own place. d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις, Rο. ix. 11; ἡ παρ᾿ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Ro. xi. 27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Co. i. 18; ἡ εἰς Χριστὸν πίστις, Col. ii. 5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, 1 Th. i. 8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, 2 Co. viii. 4; see many other exx. of each usage in W. 131 (124) sqq.; [B. 91 (80) sqq.]. e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows [W. § 18, 4; B. § 127, 29-31]; as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, Jn. ix. 24 [οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρ. L Tr mrg. WH]; Acts vi. 13; xxii. 26; ὁ λαὸς οὗτος, Mt. xv. 8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Lk. xv. 30; plur. Lk. xxiv. 17, and numberless other exx.; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Lk. xiv. 30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mk. vii. 6 [ὁ λ. οὗτ. L WH mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ νἱός μου, Lk. xv. 24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Lk. xviii. 11 [ὁ τελ. οὗτ. L mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ λόγος, Jn. vii. 36 [ὁ λόγ. οὗτ. L T Tr WH], and many other exx. on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτὸς ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III. 3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives [cf. W. §34, 2; B. § 128, 1]; as, τὸ ἀγαθόν, τὸ καλόν (which see each in its place); τὸ ἔλαττον, Heb. vii. 7; with a gen. added, τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ, Ro. i. 19; τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Ro. viii. 3; τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ, I Co. i. 25; αὐτῆς, Heb. vii. 18; τὰ ἀόρατα τ. θεοῦ, Ro. i. 20; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Co. iv. 2, etc. 4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Ro. v. 15, 17, the (that) one. So also oἱ δύο (our the twain), Mt. xix. 5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Lk. xvii. 17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καὶ) ὀκτώ, Lk. xiii. 4. 5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives [W. §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; B. §§ 129, 1 b.; 144. 9]; as, ὁ πειράζων, Mt. iv. 3; 1 Th. iii. 5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mk. vi. 14 (for which Mt. xiv. 2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Mt. xiii. 3; Lk. viii. 5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Heb. xi. 28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Lk. vii. 14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Mt. viii. 33; Mk. v. 14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Mt. xiv. 21; τὸ ὀφειλόμενον, Mt. xviii. 30, 34; τὰ ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2). b. the ptcp. with the article must be resolved into he who [and a fin. verb; cf. B. § 144, 9]: Mt. x. 40; Lk. vi. 29; xi. 23; Jn. xv. 23; 2 Co. i. 21; Phil. ii. 13, and very often, πᾶς ὁ foll. by a ptcp. [W. 111 (106)], Mt. v. 22; vii. 26; Lk. vi. 30 [T WH om. L Tr mrg. br. art.]; xi. 10; Ro. ii. 1; 1 Co. xvi. 16; Gal. iii. 13, etc.; μακάριος ὁ w. a ptcp., Mt. v. 4 (5), 6, 10, etc.; οὐαὶ ὑμῖν οἱ w. a ptcp., Lk. vi. 25; the neut. τό with a ptcp. must be resolved into that which [with a fin. verb], τὸ γεννώμενον, Lk. i. 35; τὸ γεγεννημένον, Jn. iii. 6. c. the article with ptcp. is placed in apposition: Mk. iii. 22; Acts xvii. 24; Eph. iii. 20; iv. 22, 24; 2 Tim. i. 14; 1 Pet. i. 21, etc. 6. The neut. τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. B. 261 (225) sqq. [cf. W. § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.]); as, τὸ καθίσαι, Mt. xx. 23; Mk. x. 40; τὸ θέλειν, Ro. vii. 18; 2 Co. viii. 10; τὸ ποιῆσαι, τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Co. viii. 11, and other exx.; τοῦτο κρίνατε · τὸ μὴ τιθέναι κτλ. Ro. xiv. 13. On the infin. w. the art. depending on a preposition (ἀντὶ τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each prep. in its place. b. Much more frequent in the Ν. Τ. than in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ., esp. in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the gen. τοῦ w. an inf. (and in the Sept. far more freq. than in the Ν. Τ.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his Com. on Mt. p. 843 sqq.; W. § 44, 4; B. 266 (228) sqq. The examples fall under the foll. classes: τοῦ with an inf. is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Co. xvi. 4; ἔλαχε, Lk. i. 9 (1 S. xiv. 47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Co. i. 8. β. for the simple expletive [i. e. “complementary”] or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infin., which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase, (where in Germ. zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Co. viii. 11; βραδεῖς, Lk. xxiv. 25; ἐλπίς, Acts xxvii. 20; 1 Co. ix. 10 [not Rec]; ἐζήτει εῦκαιρίαν, Lk. xxii. 6 [not Lmrg.]; ὁ καιρὸς (sc. ἐστί) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Pet. iv. 17 (καιρὸν ἔχειν w. the simple inf. Heb. xi. 15); διδόναι τὴν ἐζουσίαν, Lk. x. 19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple inf., Jn. xix. 10; 1 Co. ix. 4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν (equiv. to ὀφείλομεν), Ro. viii. 12 (with inf. alone, Gal. v. 3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts xxiii. 15 (1 Macc. iii. 58; v. 39; xiii. 37; with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Heb. v. 12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, that they should not see... that they should not hear [cf. B. 267 (230)], Ro. xi. 8 (ἔχειν ὦτα elsewh. always with a simple inf.; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered [cf. B. 1. c.], Lk. i. 57; ἐπλήσθ. ἡμέραι... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him [cf. B. 1. c], Lk. ii. 21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Lk. xvii. 1 [so B. § 140, 15; (W. 328 (308) otherwise)]; quite unusually after ἐγένετο [cf. B. § 140, 16 δ.; W. 1. c], Acts x. 25 [Rec. om. art.]. γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη [-μης Τ Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. α.)], Acts xx. 3; τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Lk. ix. 51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts xxiii. 20 (with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 5); πρασεύχεσθαι, Jas. v. 17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts xxi. 12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Lk. iv. 10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts xv. 20 (with inf. alone, xxi. 25 [R G T, but L Tr txt. WH here ἀποστέλ.; Β. 270 (232)]); κατανεύειν, Lk. v. 7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing, (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well- known pleonasm with μή before the inf. [see μή, I. 4 a.; B. § 148, 13; W. 325 (305)]; thus, after κατέχω τινά, Lk. iv. 42; κρατοῦμαι, Lk. xxiv. 16; κωλύω, Acts x. 47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts xx. 20, 27; παύω, 1 Pet. iii. 10; καταπαύω, Acts xiv. 18; without μή before the inf. after ἐγκόπτομαι, Ro. xv. 22. ε. τοῦ with an inf. is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Lk. xxi. 22; Acts ix. 15; xiii. 47; Phil. iii. 21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Ro. i. 24 [cf. B. § 140, 14]; W. 325 (305) sq. ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that [W. § 44, 4 b.; B. § 140,17]; esp. after verbs implying motion: Mt. ii. 13; iii. 13; xiii. 3, xxiv. 45; Mk. iv. 3 (where L Τ WH om. Tr br. τοῦ); Lk. i. 77, 79; ii. 24, 27; v. 1 [R G L txt. Tr mrg.]; viii. 5; xii. 42 (here L om. Tr br. τοῦ); xxii. 31; xxiv. 29; Acts iii. 2; xx. 30; xxvi. 18; Ro. vi. 6; xi. 10; Gal. iii. 10; Phil. iii. 10; Heb. x. 7, 9; xi. 5. η. used of result, so that: Acts vii. 19; Ro. vii. 3; after ποιῶ, to cause that, make to, Acts iii. 12; [cf. W. 326 (306); B. § 140, 16 δ.]. 7. The article with adverbs [B. § 125, 10 sq.; W. § 18, 3], a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τὸ πέραν, the region beyond; τὰ ἄνω, τὰ κάτω, τὸ νῦν, τὰ ἔμπροσθεν, τὰ ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places. b. is used when they stand adjectively, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words. c. the neut. τό is used in the acc. absol., esp. in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τὸ πάλιν, 2 Co. xiii. 2; τὰ νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τὸ λοιπόν, τὸ πρότερον (Jn. vi. 62; Gal. iv. 13); τὸ πρῶτον (Jn. x. 40; xii. 16; xix. 39); τὸ πλεῖστον (1 Co. xiv. 27); see these words themselves. 8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought [cf. B. § 125, 9; W. § 18, 3]; thus, οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας, ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts xvii. 13; Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6; ὁ ἔν τινι, Mt. vi. 9; Ro. viii. 1; neut. τὰ πρός, Mk. ii. 2; οἱ ἔκ τινος, Ro. ii. 8; iv. 14, 16; Phil. iv. 22 etc.; οἱ παρά τινος, Mk. iii. 21 (see παρά, I. e.). τὰ περί τινος, Lk. xxiv. 19; Acts xxiv. 10; Phil. i. 27; [add, τὰ (Τ Tr WH τὸ) περὶ ἐμοῦ, Lk. xxii. 37], etc. (see περί, I. b. β.); τὰ. περί τινα, Phil. ii. 23 [see περί, II. b.]; οἱ μετά τινος, those with one, his companions, Mt. xii. 3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other exx. which are given under the several prepositions, the neut. τό in the acc. absol. in adverbial expression!s [cf. W. 230 (216); B. §§ 125, 12; 131, 9]: τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Lk. xi. 3; xix. 47; Acts xvii. 11 [R G WH br.]; τὸ καθόλου, at all, Acts iv. 18 [L Τ WH om. τό]; besides, in τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, as respects human origin, Ro. ix. 5 [on the force of the art. here see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. etc. for 1883, p. 108]; τὰ κατ’ ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Col. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 21; τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Ro. xii. 18; τὸ ἐφ’ ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Ro. xvi. 19 R G; τὰ πρὸς (τὸν) θεόν, acc. absol., as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Ro. xv. 17; Heb. ii. 17; v. 1, (ἱερεῖ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεούς, στρατηγῷ δὲ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, Xen. resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. iii. p. 262 sq.); τὸ ἐκ μέρους sc. ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Co. xiii. 10. 9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates kinship, affinity, or some hind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing [cf. W. § 30, 3; B. § 125, 7]; a. the masc. and the fem. article: Ἰάκωβοw δ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίον, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Mt. x. 2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mk. xvi. 1 [Τ om. Tr br. τοῦ]; Lk. xxiv. 10 [L Τ Tr WH]; Ἐμμὸρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts vii. 16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Οὐρίου, the wife, Mt. i. 6; oἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Co. i. 11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Ro. xvi. 10 sq.; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ [A. V. they that are Christ's], 1 Co. xv. 23 G L Τ Tr WH; Gal. v. 24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mk. ii. 18a Rec, 18b R G L; Καισαρεία ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mk. viii. 27. b. τό and τά τινος: as τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opp. to τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Mt. xvi. 23; Mk. viii. 33; in the same sense τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, opp. to τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Co. vii. 32—34; τὰ τῆς σαρκός, τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, Ro. viii. 5; τὰ ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Co. xii. 14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τινος, 1 Co. x. 24; xiii. 5; Phil. ii. 21; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Ro. xiv. 19; τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Co. xi. 30; τὰ Καίσαρος, τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, due to Cæsar, due to God, Mt. xxii. 21; Mk. xii. 17; Lk. xx. 25; τὰ τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Co. xiii. 11; τὰ τινος, the house of one (τὰ Λύκωνος, Theocr. 2, 76; [εἰς τὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosth. § 12 p. 195]; cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. xiii. 10; [Chrysost. Hom. Iii. (on Gen. xxvi. 16), vol. iv. pt. ii. col. 458 ed. Migne; Gen. xli. 51; Esth. vii. 9, (Hebr. בַּיִת); Job xviii. 19 (Hebr. מָגוּר)]); with the name of a deity, the temple (τὰ τοῦ Διός, Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 18, 2; also τὸ τοῦ Διός, Lycurg. adv. Leocr. p. 231 [(orat. Att. p. 167, 15)]), Lk. ii. 49 (see other exx. in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100). τὰ τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Ro. ii. 14; τὸ τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22; τὰ τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Mt. viii. 33; τὸ τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Mt. xxi. 21. 10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception [B. § 125, 13; W. 109 (103 sq.)]: εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: “If thou canst believe”, Mk. ix. 23 [but L Τ Tr WH τό Εἰ δύνῃ “If thou canst I”]; cf. Bleek ad loc.; [Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.]. before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, “Thou shalt not kill”, Mt. xix. 18; add, Lk. xxii. 37 (where Lchm. ὅτι for τό); Ro. xiii. 9; [1 Co. iv. 6 L Τ Tr WH]; Gal. v. 14. before indir. questions: τὸ τὶς etc., τὸ τί etc., τὸ πῶς etc., Lk. i. 62; ix. 46; xix. 48; xxii. 2, 4, 23 sq.; Acts iv. 21; xxii. 30; Ro. viii. 26; 1 Th. iv. 1; cf. Matthiae § 280; Krüger § 50, 6, 10; Passow ii. p. 395b; [L. and S. s. v. Β. I. 3 sq.]. b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement [reff. as above]: τὸ Ἄγαρ, the name Ἄγαρ, Gal. iv. 25 [T L txt. WH mrg. om. Tr br. Ἄγαρ]; τὸ ‘ἀνέβη’, this word ἀνέβη, Eph. iv. 9, [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.]; τὸ ‘ἔτι ἅπαξ’, Heb. xii. 27; cf. Matthiae ii. p. 731 sq. 11. We find the unusual expression! ἡ οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλίψις [W. 179 (169)]), misery, calamity, [A. V. the Woe], in Rev. ix. 12; xi. 14. III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the Ν. Τ. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (§ 19) and Alex. Buttmann (§ 124, 8) [cf. also Green ch. ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (ed. Rose) pp. 41 sqq., 94 sq.; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Grk. Text of the Ν. Τ., 3d ed. 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819], and only add the foll. remarks: 1. More or less frequently the art. is wanting before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the art. is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἄγιον, ζωὴ αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead [see νεκρός, 1 b. p. 423b]); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law [see νόμος, 2 p. 428a]), κύριος, πατήρ, νἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc. 2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place. or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φνλακήν, ἐν φυλακῇ, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐν πίστεως, κατὰ σάρκα, ἐπ’ἐλπίδα, παρ’ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ’ ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ’ ἀγροῦ, ἐν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρώδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples. ὅ (ho), τε, ἥ, τε, τό, τε, see τέ 2 a. - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, xvii. 17; ἡ κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερο&#
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노인 환자에 관한 성구 창9:21 노년에 술취하여 수치를 보임/ 창 9:21 험악한 세월을 보냄 / 창 47: 8∼9 연로하여 눈이 어두어진 엘리/ 삼상 4:15 다윗도 늙고 연약해짐 / 왕상 1: 1 히스기야 왕이 죽을 병에서 희생함/ 왕하 20: 1∼8 근심 없이 예수를 믿음 / 요 14: 1∼2 속사람이 새로워짐 / 고후 4:16 영원한 집을 사모함 / 고후 5: 1∼2 세상 떠날 기약이 가까워 옴 / 딤후 4: 6 남은 때를 하나님 뜻대로 살 것/ 벧전 4: 2
노인성 질환을 앓고 있는 이를 위한 성구/ 창47:9/ 2004-01-20
노인성 질환을 앓고 있는 이 창47:9 창세기 47장 9절 야곱이 바로에게 아뢰되 내 나그네 길의 세월이 백삼십 년이니이다 내 나이가 얼마 못 되니 우리 조상의 나그네 길의 연조에 미치지 못하나 짧고 험악한 세월을 보내었나이다 하고 열왕기상 1장 1절 다윗 왕이 나이가 많아 늙으니 이불을 덮어도 따뜻하지 아니한지라 열왕기하 20장 5절 너는 돌아가서 내 백성의 주권자 히스기야에게 이르기를 왕의 조상 다윗의 하나님 여호와의 말씀이 내가 네 기도를 들었고 네 눈물을 보았노라 내가 너를 낫게 하리니 네가 삼 일 만에 여호와의 성전에 올라가겠고 요한복음 14장 1절 너희는 마음에 근심하지 말라 하나님을 믿으니 또 나를 믿으라 고린도후서 4장 16절 그러므로 우리가 낙심하지 아니하노니 우리의 겉사람은 낡아지나 우리의 속사람은 날로 새로워지도다 고린도후서 5장 1절 만일 땅에 있는 우리의 장막 집이 무너지면 하나님께서 지으신 집 곧 손으로 지은 것이 아니요 하늘에 있는 영원한 집이 우리에게 있는 줄 아느니라 디모데후서 4장 6절 전제와 같이 내가 벌써 부어지고 나의 떠날 시각이 가까웠도다 베드로전서 4장 2절 그 후로는 다시 사람의 정욕을 따르지 않고 하나님의 뜻을 따라 육체의 남은 때를 살게 하려 함이라
노인에 관한 성구/ 삿19:16/ 2002-02-04
노인에 관한 성구 삿19:16 밭에서 일하는 노인/ 삿 19:16 노인이 하나도 없는 집 / 삼상 2:31 왕을 모시는 노인들 / 왕상 12: 6 일어나서 서는 노인 / 욥 29: 8 자손은 노인의 면류관 / 잠 17: 6 노인의 아름다운 것은 백발 / 잠 20:29 수한이 차지 못한 노인 / 사 65:20 하늘의 장막이 있음 / 고후 5: 1 세상을 떠날 기약이 가까움/ 딤후 4: 5∼7 육체의 남은 때를 하나님 뜻대로/ 벧전 4: 2∼3 남편을 다시 두지 못한 노파 / 룻 1:12 손자를 잘 양육하는 조모 / 룻 4:16 아들 없고 늙은 남편 모신 여인/ 왕하 4:14 늙은 어미를 경히 여기지 말라 / 잠 23:32 같이 늙어가는 노부부 / 눅 1:18 예수를 환영한 아나 노선지 /눅 2:36∼38 늙은 여인을 어미같이 권하며/ 딤전 5: 2 신앙을 유업으로 남겨준 로이스/ 딤후 1: 5 성결한 행실의 노파 / 딛 2: 3 젊은 부녀를 가르치는 노부녀 / 딛 2: 4
마음이 어떻게 깨끗해질 수 있는가?/ 2011-02-26
마음이 어떻게 깨끗해질 수 있는가? 그러면 우리의 마음이 어떻게 깨끗해 질 수 있는가? 행15:9-“믿음으로 그들의 마음을 깨끗이 하사 그들이나 우리나 차별하지 아니하셨느니라”
마태복음 1장 1절/ 마1:1
마태복음 1장 1절/ 마1:1 KJY : The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. NASB : The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham; ESV : The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. NIV : A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham: 개역개정 : 아브라함과 다윗의 자손 예수 그리스도의 계보라. 개역한글 : 아브라함과 다윗의 자손 예수 그리스도의 세계라. 공동번역 : 아브라함의 후손이요, 다윗의 자손인 예수 그리스도의 족복는 다음과 같다. 표준새번역 : 아브라함의 자손이요 다윗의 자손이신 예수 그리스도의 족보는 이러하다. 쉬운성경 : 아브라함의 후손이며, 다윗의 후손인 예수 그리스도의 족보입니다. 우리말 성경 : 아브라함의 자손이며 다윗의 자손인 예수 그리스도의 족보입니다. Greek : Βίβ.λος γε.νέ.σε.ως Ἰ.η.σοῦ Χρι.στοῦ υἱ.οῦ Δαυ.εὶδ υἱ.οῦ Ἀβ.ρα.άμ. - βίβλος (biblos, 976), -ου, ἡ, (or rather ἡ βύβλος [but the form βίβλ. more com. when it denotes a writing], the plant called papyrus, Theophr. Hist. plant. 4, 8, 2 sq.; [Plin. h. n. 13, 11 sq. (21 sq.)]; fr. its bark [rather, the cellular substance of its stem (for it was an endogenous plant)] paper was made [see Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc. p. 433 sq.; esp. Dureau de la Malle in the Mémoires de l’Acad. d. Inscrr. etc. torn. 19 pt. 1 (1851) pp. 140-183, and (in correction of current misapprehensions) Prof. E. Abbot in the Library Journal for Nov. 1878, p. 323 sq., where other reff. are also given]), a written book, a roll or scroll: Mt. i. 1; Lk. iii. 4; Mk. xii. 26; Acts i. 20; τῆς ζωῆς, Phil. iv. 3; Rev. iii. 5, etc.; see βιβλίον. [From Aeschyl. down.] - γένεσις (genesis, 1078), -εως, ἡ, (ΓΕΝΩ [Curtius § 128]), in Grk. writ. for the first time in Hom. Il. 14, 201 [cf. 246]; 1. source, origin: βίβλος γενέσεώς τινος a book of one’s lineage, i. e. in which his ancestry or his progeny are enumerated (i. q. סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדוֹת, Gen. v. 1, etc.), [Mt. i. 1]. 2. used of birth, nativity, in Mt. i. 18 and Lk. i. 14, for Rec. γέννησις (ἡμέραι τῆς γενέσεώς μου equiv. to ἀφ’ οὗ ἐγεννήθην, Judith xii. 18 cf. 20); πρόσωπον τῆς γενέσεως his native (natural) face, Jas. i. 23. 3. of that which follows origin, viz. existence, life: ὁ τροχὸς τῆς γενέσεως the wheel [cf. Eng. “machinery”] of life, Jas. iii. 6 (cf. Grimm on Sap. vii. 5); but others explain it the wheel of human origin which as soon as men are born begins to run, i. e. the course [cf. Eng. “round”] of life.* - Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous, 2424), -οῦ, dat. -οῦ, acc. -οῦν, voc. -οῦ, [W. § 10, 1], ὁ, Jesus (יִהוֹשֻׁעַ and acc. to a later form יֵשׁוּעַ, Syr. kkk i. e. whose help is Jehovah; Germ. Gotthilf; but later writ. gave the name the force of יְשׁוּעָה, see Mt. i. 21, cf. Sir. xlvi. 1 Ἰησοῦς ὃς ἐγένετο κατὰ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μέγας ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ, of Joshua, the successor of Moses; Philo, nora. mutat. § 21 Ἰησοῦς ἑρμηνεύεται σωτηρία κυρίου), a very com. prop. name among the Israelites; cf. Delitzsch, Der Jesusname, in the Zeitschr. f. d. luth. Theol. for 1876, p. 209 sq. [or Talmud. Stud. xv.]. In the N. T. 1. Joshua [fully Jehoshua], the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor: Acts vii. 45; Heb. iv. 8. 2. Jesus, son of Eliezer, one of Christ’s ancestors: Lk. iii. 29 L T Tr WH. 3. Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind: Mt. i. 21, 25; Lk. i. 31; ii. 21, and very often; see κύριος and Χριστός. 4. Jesus Barabbas; see Βαραββᾶς. 5. Jesus, surnamed Justus, a Jewish Christian, an associate with Paul in preaching the gospel: Col. iv. 11. - χριστός (christos, 5547), -ή, -όν, (χρίω), Sept. for מָשִׁיַח, anointed: ὁ ἱερεὺς ὁ χριστός, Lev. iv. 5; vi. 22; οἱ χριστοὶ ἱερεῖς, 2 Macc. i. 10; the patriarchs are called, substantively, οἱ χριστοὶ θεοῦ, Ps. civ. (cv.) 15; the sing. ὁ χριστὸς τοῦ κυρίου (יְהוָֹה מְשִׁיַח) in the Ο. Τ. often of the king of Israel (see χρίσμα), as 1 S. ii. 10, 35; [xxiv. 11; xxvi. 9, 11, 23]; 2 S. i. 14; Ps. ii. 2; xvii. (xviii.) 51; Hab. iii. 13; [2 Chr. xxii. 7]; also of a foreign king, Cyrus, as sent of God, Is. xlv. 1; of the coming king whom the Jews expected to be the saviour of their nation and the author of their highest felicity: the name ὁ χριστός (מָשִׁיחָא, Chald. מְשִׁיחָא) is not found in the Ο. Τ. but is first used of him in the Book of Enoch 48, 10 [cf. Schodde\'s note]; 52, 4 (for the arguments by which some have attempted to prove that the section containing these passages is of Christian origin are not convincing [cf. υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, 2 and reff.]), after Ps. ii. 2 referred to the Messiah; [cf. Psalter of Sol. 17, 36; 18, 6. 8]. Cf. Keim ii. 549 [Eng. trans. iv. 263 sq.; Westcott “Additional Note” on 1 Jn. v. 1. On the general subject see Schürer, Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 29.] In the N. T. it is used 1. of the Messiah, viewed in his generic aspects [the word, that is to say, being used as an appellative rather than a proper name], ὁ χριστός: Mt. ii. 4; xvi. 16; xxiii. 10; xxiv. 5, 23; xxvi. 63; Mk. viii. 29; xii. 35; xiii. 21; xiv. 61; Lk. iii. 15; iv. 41; xx. 41; xxii. 67 (66); xxiii. 39; xxiv. 26, 46; Jn. i. 20, 25, [41 (42) Rec.]; iii. 28; iv. 29; vi. 69 Rec.; vii. 26, 31, 41; xi. 27; xii. 34; xx. 31; Acts ii. 30 Rec., 31; iii. 18; viii. 5; ix. 22; xvii. 3a; xviii. 5, 28; xxvi. 23; 1 Jn. ii. 22; v. 1; ὁ χριστὸς κυρίου or τοῦ θεοῦ, Lk. ii. 26; ix. 20; Acts iv. 26; without the article, Lk. ii. 11; xxiii. 2; Jn. i. 41 (42) L Τ Tr WH; ix. 22; Acts ii. 36; ὁ χριστός, ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Mk. xv. 32; ὁ χριστός so used as to refer to Jesus, Rev. xx. 4, 6; with τοῦ θεοῦ added, Rev. xi. 15; xii. 10. 2. It is added, as an appellative (“Messiah”, “anointed”), to the proper name Ἰησοῦς; a. Ἰησοῦς ὁ χριστός, Jesus the Christ (“Messiah”): Acts v. 42 R G; ix. 34 [R G]; 1 Co. iii. 11 Rec.; 1 Jn. v. 6 [R G L]; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος χριστός, who they say is the Messiah [(cf. b. below)], Mt. xxvii. 22; without the art. Ἰησοῦς χριστός, Jesus as Christ or Messiah, Jn. xvii. 3; 1 Jn. iv. 2; 2 Jn. 7, [but in all three exx. it seems better to take χρ. as a prop. name (see b. below)]; ὁ χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς, the Christ (Messiah) who is Jesus, [Mt. i. 18 WH mrg. (see b. below)]; Acts v. 42 L Τ Tr WH [R. V. Jesus as the Christ]; xix. 4 Rec. b. ὁ Χριστός is a proper name (cf. W. § 18, 9 N. 1; [as respects the use of a large or a small initial letter the critical edd. vary: Tdf. seems to use the capital initial in all cases; Treg. is inconsistent (using a small letter, for instance, in all the exx. under 1 above, exc. Lk. xxii. 67 and Jn. iv. 29; in Mt. i. 1 a capital, in Mk. i. 1 a small letter, etc.); WH have adopted the principle of using a capital when the art. is absent and avoiding it when the art. is present (1 Pet. being intentionally excepted; the small letter being retained also in such exx. as Lk. ii. 11; xxiii. 2; Acts ii. 36, etc.); see WH. Intr. § 415]): Mt. i. 17; xi. 2; Ro. i. 16 Rec.; vii. 4; ix. 5; xiv. 18 [here L om. Tr br. the art.]; xv. 19; 1 Co. i. 6, etc. without the article, Mk. ix. 41; Ro. vi. 4; viii. 9, 17; 1 Co. i. 12; Gal. ii. 16 sq. 19 (20), 21; iii. 27; Phil. i. 10, 13, 19-21, 23; ii. 16; Col. ii. 5, 8; Heb. iii. 6, and often. Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, Mt. i. 1, 18 [here Tr om. Ἰ., WH txt. br. Ἰ.; al ὁ Ἰ. Χρ. which is unique; see WH. App. ad loc.]; Mk. i. 1; Jn. i. 17; Acts ii. 38; iii. 6; iv. 10; viii. 12; [ix. 34 L Τ Tr WH]; x. 36; xi. 17; xv. 26; xvi. 18, 31 [R G]; xx. 21 [here L WH txt. om. Tr br. Χρ.]; xxviii. 31 [Tdf. om. Χρ.]; Ro. i. 1 [R G WH txt. (see below)], 6, 8; ii. 16 [R G Tr txt. WH mrg. (see below)]; 1 Co. i. 7-9; iii. 11 [G Τ Tr WH (Rec. Ἰ. ὁ Χρ.)]; xv. 57, and very often in the Epp. of Paul and Peter; Heb. xiii. 8, 21; 1 Jn. i. 3, 7 [R G]; ii. 1; [v. 6 G T Tr WH]; 2 Jn. 7 [(see a. above)]; Jude 4, 17, 21; Rev. i. 1 sq. 5; xxii. 21 [R G (WH br. al. om. Χρ.)]. Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς, Ro. [i. 1 Τ Tr WH mrg. (see above); ii. 16 Τ Tr mrg. WH txt. (see above)]; vi. 3 [WH br. Ἰ.]; 1 Co. i. 2, 30; [iii. 11 Lchm. (see above)]; Gal. iii. 14 [here Tr txt. WH txt. Ἰ. Χ.]; iv. 14; v. 6 [WH br. Ἰ.]; vi. 15; Phil. ii. 5; iii. 3, 14; Col. ii. 6; 1 Tim. i. 2; ii. 5. Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, surnamed “Christ” [(cf. a. above)], Mt. i. 16. on the phrases ἐν Χριστῷ, ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, see ἐν, I. 6 b. p. 211b [cf. W. § 20, 2 a.]. Χριστός and Ἰησοῦς Χρ. ἔν τισιν, preached among, 2 Co. i. 19; Col. i. 27 [al. (so R. V.) would take ἐν here internally (as in the foll. exx.), within; cf. ἐν, I. 2]; Χριστὸς ἔν τισιν is used of the person of Christ, who by his holy power and Spirit lives in the souls of his followers, and so moulds their characters that they bear his likeness, Ro. viii. 10 (cf. 9); 2 Co. xiii. 5; Gal. ii. 20; Eph. iii. 17; a mind conformed to the mind of Christ, Gal. iv. 19. - υἱός (huios, 5207), -οῦ, ὁ, fr. Hom. down, Sept. for בֵּן and Chald. בַּר, a son (male offspring); 1. prop. a. rarely of the young of animals: Mt. xxi. 5 (Ps. xxviii. (xxix.) 1; Sir. xxxviii. 25); generally of the offspring of men, and in the restricted sense, male issue (one begotten by a father and born of a mother): Mt. x. 37; Lk. i. 13; [xiv. 5 L Τ Tr WH]; Acts vii. 29; Gal. iv. 22, etc.; ὁ υἱός τινος, Mt. vii. 9; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. iii. 2; Jn. i. 42 (43), and very often, as in Grk. writ., υἱός is often to be supplied by the reader [W. § 30, 3 p. 593 (551)]: as τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου, Mt. iv. 21; Mk. i. 19. plur. υἱοί τινος, Mt. xx. 20 sq.; Lk. v. 10; Jn. iv. 12; Acts ii. 17; Heb. xi. 21, etc. with the addition of an adj., as πρωτότοκος, Mt. i. 25 [R G]; Lk. ii. 7; μονογενής, Lk. vii. 12. οἱ υἱοί, genuine sons, are distinguished fr. οἱ νόθοι in Heb. xii. 8. i. q. τέκνον with ἄρσην added, a man child [B. 80 (70)], Rev. xii. 5; of one (actually or to be) regarded as a son, although properly not one, Jn. xix. 26; Acts vii. 21; Heb. xi. 24; in kindly address, Heb. xii. 5 fr. Prov. iii. 11 (see τέκνον, a. β.). b. in a wider sense (like θυγάτηρ, τέκνον), α descendant, one of the posterity of any one: τινός, Mt. i. 20; ὁ υἱὸς Δαυΐδ, of the Messiah, Mt. xxii. 42, 45; Mk. xii. 35, 37; Lk. xx. 41, 44; of Jesus the Messiah, Mt. ix. 27; xii. 23; xv. 22; xx. 30 sq.; xxi. 9, 15; Mk. x. 47 sq.; Lk. xviii. 38 sq. plur. υἱοί τινος, Mt. xxiii. 31; Heb. vii. 5; υἱοὶ Ἰσραήλ, Israelites [the children of Israel], Mt. xxvii. 9; Acts ix. 15; x. 36; 2 Co. iii. 7, 13; Heb. xi. sq.; Rev. ii. 14; vii. 4; xxi. 12, (see Ἰσραήλ); υἱοὶ Ἀβραάμ, sons of Abraham, is trop. applied to those who by their faith in Christ are akin to Abraham, Gal. iii. 7. 2. trop. and acc. to the Hebr. mode of speech [W. 33 (32)], υἱός with the gen. of a person is used of one who depends on another or is his follower: οἱ υἱοί of teachers, i. q. pupils (see τέκνον, b. β. [cf. Iren. haer. 4, 41, 2 qui enim ab aliquo edoctus est, verbo filius docentis dicitur, et ille eius pater]), Mt. xii. 27; Lk. xi. 19; τοῦ πονηροῦ, who in thought and action are prompted by the evil one and obey him, Mt. xiii. 38; υἱὸς διαβόλου, Acts xiii. 10; with the gen. of a thing, one who is connected with or belongs to a thing by any kind of close relationship [W. § 34, 3 N. 2; B. § 132, 10]: υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος (see νυμφών), Mt. ix. 15; Mk. ii. 19; Lk. v. 34, (τῆς ἄκρας, the garrison of the citadel, 1 Macc. iv. 2; in Ossian “a son of the hill” i. e. “a hunter”,”a son of the sea” i. e. “a sailor”; cf. Jen. Lit. Zeit. for 1836 No. 58 p. 462 sq.); τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, those whose character belongs to this age [is “worldly”], Lk. xvi. 8; xx. 34; τῆς ἀπειθείας, i. e. ἀπειθεῖς, Eph. ii. 2; v. 6; Col. iii. 6 [here Τ Tr WH om. L br. the cl.], (ἀνομίας, Ps. lxxxviii. (lxxxix.) 23; τῆς ὑπερηφανίας, 1 Macc. ii. 47); βροντῆς, who resemble thunder, thundering, (see Βοανεργές), Mk. iii. 17; τοῦ φωτός, instructed in evangelical truth and devotedly obedient to it, Lk. xvi. 8; Jn. xii. 36; with καὶ τῆς ἡμέρας added, 1 Th. v. 5; τῆς ἀναστάσεως, sharers in the resurrection, Lk. xx. 36; παρακλήσεως, Acts iv. 36; one to whom anything belongs: as υἱοὶ τῶν προφητῶν κ. τῆς διαθήκης, those to whom the prophetic and covenant promises belong, Acts iii. 25; for whom a thing is destined, as υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Mt. viii. 12; xiii. 38; τῆς ἀπωλείας, Jn. xvii. 12; 2 Th. ii. 3; one who is worthy of a thing, as γεέννης, Mt. xxiii. 15; εἰρήνης, Lk. x. 6, (θανάτου, 1 S. xx. 31; 2 S. xii. 5; הַכּוֹת בִּן, Sept. ἄξιος πληγῶν, Deut. xxv. 2). [Syn. see τέκνον.] υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, Sept. for אָדָם בֶּן, Chald. אֱנָשׁ בַּר, son of man; it is 1. prop. a periphrasis for “man’, esp. com. in the poet. bks. of the Ο. Τ., and usually carrying with it a suggestion of weakness and mortality: Num. xxiii. 19; Job xvi. 21; xxv. 6; Ps. viii. 5; Is. li. 12; Sir. xvii. 30 (25), etc.; often in Ezekiel, where God addresses the prophet by this name, as ii. 1, 3; iii. 1 (ii. 10), etc.; plur. הָאָדָם בְּנֵי (because אָדָם wants the plur.), υἱοὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Gen. xi. 5; 1 S. xxvi. 19; Ps. x. (xi.) 4; Prov. viii. 31, etc. So in the N. T.: Mk. iii. 28; Eph. iii. 5, (Sap. ix. 6); sing. ὅμοιος υἱῷ ἀνθρ. [like unto a son of man], of Christ in the apocalyptic vision, Rev. i. 13 [here υἱόν Τ WH txt.]; xiv. 14 [υἱόν Τ WH], (after Dan. vii. 13). 2. In Dan. vii. 13 sq., cf. 18, 22, 27, the appellation son of man (אֱנָשׁ בַּר) symbolically denotes the fifth kingdom, universal and Messianic; and by this term its humanity is indicated in contrast with the barbarity and ferocity of the four preceding kingdoms (the Babylonian, the Median, the Persian, the Macedonian) typified under the form of beasts (vs. 2 sqq.). But in the book of Enoch (written towards the close of the 2d cent. before Christ [but cf. B. D. (esp. Am. ed.); Lipsius in Dict. of Chris. Biog. s. v.; Dillmann in Herzog (ed. 2, vol. xii. p. 350 sq.); Schodde, Book of Enoch, p. 20 sqq.]) the name “son of man” is employed to designate the person of the Messiah: 46, 2 sq.; 48, 2; 62, 7. 9. 14; 63, 11; 69, 26 sq.; 70, 1; 71, 17. (The chapters in which the name occurs are the work, if not of the first author of the book (as Ewald and Dillmann think [but see B. D. Am. ed. p. 740b; and Herzog as above p. 351]), at least of a Jewish writer (cf. Schürer, Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 32 V. 2 p. 626), certainly not (as Hilgenfeld, Volkmar, Keim, and others imagine) of a Christian interpolator.) In the language of the Jews in Jn. xii. 34 the titles Χριστός and υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου are used as synonyms. 3. The title ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, the Son of Man, is used by Jesus of himself (speaking in the third person) in Mt. viii. 20; ix. 6; x. 23; xi. 19; xii. 8, 32, 40; xiii. 37, 41; xvi. 13, 27 sq.; xvii. 9, 12, 22; xviii. 11 Rec.; xix. 28; xx. 18, 28; xxiv. 27, 30, 37, 39, 44; xxiv. 30 (twice); xxv. 13 Rec., 31; xxvi. 2, 24, 45, 64; Mk. ii. 10, 28; viii. 31, 38; ix. 9, 12, 31; x. 33, 45; xiii. 26; xiv. 21, 41, 62; Lk. v. 24; vi. 5, 22; vii. 34; ix. 22, 26, 44, 56 Rec., 58; xi. 30; xii. 8, 10, 40; xvii. 22, 24, 26, 30; xviii. 8, 31; xix. 10; xxi. 27, 36; xxii. 22, 48, 69; xxiv. 7; Jn. i. 51 (52); iii. 13 sq.; vi. 27, 53, 62; viii. 28; xii. 23, 34; xiii. 31, (once without the article, Jn. v. 27), doubtless in order that (by recalling Dan. vii. 13sq. — not, as some suppose, Ps. viii. 5) he might thus intimate his Messiahship (as is plain from such pass. as ὄψεσθε τ. υἱ. τ. ἀνθρ.... ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Mt. xxvi. 64; Mk. xiv. 62, cf. Dan. vii. 13; τὸν υἱ. τ. ἀνθρ. ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ, Mt. xvi. 28; ὅταν καθίσῃ ὁ υἱ. τ. ἀνθρ. ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦ, Mt. xix. 28); and also (as appears to be the case at least fr. Mk. ii. 28, where ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου stands in emphatic antithesis to the repeated ὁ ἄνθρωπος preceding), that he might designate himself as the head of the human race, the man κατ᾽ ἐξοχήν, the one who both furnished the pattern of the perfect man and acted on behalf of all mankind. Christ seems to have preferred this to the other Messianic titles, because by its lowliness it was least suited to foster the expectation of an earthly Messiah in royal splendor. There are no traces of the application of the name to Jesus in the apostolic age except in the speech of Stephen, Acts vii. 56, and that of James, the brother of Jesus, in a fragment from Hegesippus given in Eus. h. e. 2, 23 (25), 13, each being a reminiscence of the words of Jesus in Mt. xxvi. 64, (to which may be added, fr. the apostolic fathers, Ignat. ad Ephes. 20, 2 ἐν Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ τῷ κατὰ σάρκα ἐκ γένους Δαυΐδ, τῷ υἱῷ ἀνθρώπου καὶ υἱῷ θεοῦ). This disuse was owing no doubt to the fact that the term did not seem to be quite congruous with the divine nature and celestial majesty of Christ; hence in Barn. ep. 12, 10 we read, Ἰησοῦς οὐχ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου (i. e. like Joshua), ἀλλ᾽ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ [cf. Harnack\'s note on the pass.]. On this title, see esp. Holtzmann in Hilgenfeld\'s Zeitschr. für wissenschaftl. Theol., 1865, p. 212 sqq.; Keim ii. p. 65 sqq. [(Eng. trans. vol. iii. p. 79 sqq.); Immer, Theol. d. Ν. Τ. p. 105 sqq.; Westcott, Com. on Jn. p. 33 sq.; and other reff. in Meyer on Mt. viii. 20; B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Son of Man].* υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, son of God; 1. in a physical sense, in various applications: originating by direct creation, not begotten by man, — as the first man Adam, Lk. iii. 38; Jesus, begotten of the Holy Ghost without the intervention of a human father, Lk. i. 35; in a heathen sense, as uttered by the Roman centurion of Jesus, a “demigod” or “hero”, Mt. xxvii. 54; Mk. xv. 39. 2. in a metaphysical sense, in various applications: plur., of men, who although the issue of human parents yet could not come into being without the volition of God, the primary author of all things, Heb. ii. 10, cf. vss. 11, 13; of men as partaking of immortal life after the resurrection, and thus becoming more closely related to God, Lk. xx. 36; of angels, as beings superior to men, and more closely akin to God, Deut. xxxii. 43; for אֱלהִׁים בְּנֵי in Sept. of Gen. vi. 2, 4; Ps. xxviii. (xxix.) 1; lxxxviii. (lxxxix.) 7 (a phrase which in Job i. 6; ii. 1; xxxviii. 7 is translated ἄγγελοι θεοῦ); in the highest sense Jesus Christ is called ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ as of a nature superhuman and closest to God: Ro. i. 4; viii. 3; Gal. iv. 4; and esp. in the Ep. to the Heb., i. 2 (1), 5, 8; iii. 6; iv. 14; v. 5, 8; vi. 6; vii. 3, 28; x. 29. [Cf. B. D. s. v. Son of God, and reff. in Am. ed.] 3. in a theocratic sense: of kings and magistrates, as vicegerents of God the supreme ruler, 2 S. vii. 14; Ps. ii. 7; υἱοὶ ὑψίστου, Ps. lxxxi. (lxxxii.) 6; πρωτότοκος (sc. τοῦ θεοῦ), of the king of Israel, Ps. lxxxviii. (lxxxix.) 28. In accordance with Ps. ii. 7 and 2 S. vii. 14, the Jews called the Messiah ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ pre-eminently, as the supreme representative of God, and equipped for his office with the fulness of the Holy Spirit, i. e. endued with divine power beyond any of the sons of men, Enoch 105, 2. In the Ν. Τ. it is used of Jesus—in the utterances of the devil, Mt. iv. 3, 6; Lk. iv. 3, 9; in passages where Jesus is addressed by this title by others, Mt. viii. 29; xiv. 33; xxvii. 40, 43; Mk. iii. 11; v. 7; Lk. iv. 41; viii. 28; xxii. 70; Jn. xix. 7; Acts viii. 37 Rec.; ix. 20; xiii. 33; υἱὸς τοῦ ὑψίστου, Lk. i. 32; in the language of Jesus concerning himself, Mt. xxviii. 19; Jn. ix. 35; x. 36, cf. Mt. xxi. 37 sq.; Mk. xii. 6; besides, in Rev. ii. 18; ὁ υἱ. τ. θ., (ὁ) βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. i. 49 (50); ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱ. τ. θ., Mt. xxvi. 63; Jn. xi. 27; Ἰησοπῦς Χριστὸς υἱ. τ. [L Tr WH marg. om. τοῦ] θ. Mk. i. 1 [here Τ WH txt. om. (see WH. App. p. 23)]; ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ εὐλογητοῦ, Mk. xiv. 61; with the added ethical idea of one who enjoys intimate intercourse with God: ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱ. τ. θεοῦ ζῶντος, Mt. xvi. 16, and Rec. in Jn. vi. 69. in the solemn utterances of God concerning Jesus: ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, Mt. iii. 17; xvii. 5; Mk. i. 11; ix. 7; Lk. iii. 22; ix. 35 [R G L txt.]; 2 Pet. i. 17, cf. Mt. ii. 15. 4. in an ethical sense with very various reference; those whom God esteems as sons, whom he loves, protects and benefits above others: so of the Jews, Deut. xiv. 1; Sap. xii. 19 sqq.; xviii. 4; υἱοὶ καὶ θυγατέρες τοῦ θεοῦ, Is. xliii. 6; Sap. ix. 7; πρωτότοκος τοῦ θεοῦ, Ex. iv. 22; in the Ν. Τ. of Christians, Ro. ix. 26; Rev. xxi. 7; those whose character God, as a loving father, shapes by chastisement, Heb. xii. 5-8; those who revere God as their father, the pious worshippers of God, Sap. ii. 13 [here παῖς κυρίου], 18; those who in character and life resemble God (Sir. iv. 10 υἱοὶ ὑψίστου; [cf. Epict. dissert. 1, 9, 6]): Mt. v. 9, 45; υἱοὶ ὑψίστου, Lk. vi. 35; υἱοὶ κ. θυγατέρες, spoken of Christians, 2 Co. vi. 18; those who are governed by the Spirit of God, Ro. viii. 14 (ὅσοι πνεύματι θεοῦ ἄγονται, οὗτοι υἱοί εἰσι τοῦ θεοῦ), repose the same calm and joyful trust in God which children do in their parents, Ro. viii. 14 sqq.; Gal. iii. 26; iv. 6 sq., and hereafter in the blessedness and glory of the life eternal will openly wear this dignity of sons of God, Ro. viii. 19 (ἀποκάλυψις τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ), cf. 1 Jn. iii. 2, (see τέκνον, b. γ. [and reff.]). pre-eminently of Jesus, as enjoying the supreme love of God, united to him in affectionate intimacy, privy to his saving counsels, obedient to the Father\'s will in all his acts: Mt. xi. 27; Lk. x. 22; Jn. iii. 35 sq.; v. 19 sq. In many passages of the writings of John and of Paul, this ethical sense so blends with the metaphysical and the theocratic, that it is often very difficult to decide which of these elements is predominant in a particular case: Jn. i. 34; iii. 17; v. 21-23, 25 sq.; vi. 40; viii. 35 sq.; xi. 4; xiv. 13; xvii. 1; 1 Jn. i. 3, 7; ii. 22-24; iii. 8, 23; iv. 10, 14 sq.; v. 5, 9-13, 20; 2 Jn. 3, 9; Ro. i. 3, 9; v. 10; viii. 3, 29, 32; 1 Co. i. 9; xv. 28; 2 Co. i. 19; Gal. i. 16; ii. 20; Eph. iv. 13; 1 Th. i. 10; ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀγάπης αὐτοῦ (i. e. God\'s), Col. i. 13; ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱ. τ. θ. Jn. xx. 31; ὁ μονογενὴς υἱ., Jn. i. 18 [here Tr WH μονογ. θεός, L mrg. ὁ μ. θ. (see μονογ. and reff.)]; iii. 18; ὁ υἱ. τ. θ. ὁ μονογ., iii. 16; 1 Jn. iv. 9, (see μονογενής). It can hardly be doubted that a reverent regard for the transcendent difference which separates Christ from all those who by his grace are exalted to the dignity of sons of God led John always to call Christians τέκνα τοῦ θεοῦ, not as Paul does υἱοί and τέκνα τοῦ θεοῦ indiscriminately; the like reverence moved Luther to translate the plur. υἱοὶ τ. θ. everywhere by Kinder Gottes; [cf., however, τέκνον, b. γ. and reff.]. This appellation is not found in 2 Th., Phil., Philem., the Pastoral Epp., nor in 1 Pet. or in the Ep. of James.* - Δαυεὶδ : Daueid - Ἀβραάμ (Abraam, 11) [Rec.st Ἁβρ.; cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 106] (Joseph. Ἄβραμος, -ου), אַבְרָהָם (father of a multitude, cf. Gen. xvii. 5), Abraham, the renowned founder of the Jewish nation: Mt. i. 1 sq; xxii. 32; Lk. xix. 9; Jn. viii. 33; Acts iii. 25; Heb. vii. 1 sqq., and elsewhere. He is extolled by the apostle Paul as a pattern of faith, Ro. iv. 1 sqq. 17 sqq; Gal. iii. 6 (cf. Heb. xi. 8), on which account all believers in Christ have a claim to the title sons or posterity of Abraham, Gal. iii. 7, 29; cf. Ro. iv. 11.
마태복음 1장 2절
마태복음 1장 2절 KJY : Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren; NASB : Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, and Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers. ESV : Abraham was the father of Isaac, and Isaac the father of Jacob, and Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers. NIV : Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers, 개역개정 : 아브라함이 이삭을 낳고 이삭은 야곱을 낳고 야곱은 유다와 그의 형제을 낳고 개역한글 : 아브라함이 이삭을 낳고 이삭은 야곱을 낳고 야곱은 유다와 그의 형제를 낳고. 공동번역 : 아브라함은 이사악을 낳았고 이사악은 야곱을, 야곱은 유다와 그의 형제를 낳았으며 표준새번역 : 아브라함은 이삭을 낳고, 이삭은 야곱을 낳고, 야곱은 유다와 그의 형제들을 낳고, 쉬운성경 : 아브라함은 이삭을 낳고, 이삭은 야곱을 낳았습니다. 야곱은 유다와 그의 형제들을 낳았습니다. 우리말 성경 : 아브라함은 이삭을 낳고 이삭은 야곱을 낳고 야곱은 유다와 그 형제들을 낳고 Greek : ?β.ρα.?μ ?.γ?ν.νη.σεν τ?ν ?.σα.?κ, ?.σα.?κ δ? ?.γ?ν.νη.σεν τ?ν ?.α.κ?β, ?.α.κ?β δ? ?.γ?ν.νη.σεν τ?ν ?.ο?.δαν κα? το?? ?.δελ.φο?? α?.το?, - ?βρα?μ (Abraam, 11) [Rec.st ?βρ.; cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 106] (Joseph. ?βραμο?, -ου), ????????? (father of a multitude, cf. Gen. xvii. 5), Abraham, the renowned founder of the Jewish nation: Mt. i. 1 sq; xxii. 32; Lk. xix. 9; Jn. viii. 33; Acts iii. 25; Heb. vii. 1 sqq., and elsewhere. He is extolled by the apostle Paul as a pattern of faith, Ro. iv. 1 sqq. 17 sqq; Gal. iii. 6 (cf. Heb. xi. 8), on which account all believers in Christ have a claim to the title sons or posterity of Abraham, Gal. iii. 7, 29; cf. Ro. iv. 11. - γενν?ω (genna?, 1080), -?; fut. γενν?σω; 1 aor. ?γ?ννησα; pf. γεγ?ννηκα; [Pass., pres. γενν?ομαι, -?μαι]; pf. γεγ?ννημαι; 1 aor. ?γενν?θην; (fr. γ?ννα, poetic for γ?νο?); in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down; in Sept. for ?????; to beget; 1. properly: of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16; Acts vii. 8, 29; foll. by ?κ with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57; xxiii. 29; Jn. xvi. 21; ε?? δουλε?αν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lcian. de sacrif. 6; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; al.; Sept. Is. lxvi. 9; 4 Macc. x. 2, etc.). Pass. to be begotten: τ? ?ν α?τ? γεννηθ?ν that which is begotten in her womb, Mt. i. 20; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 (250); B. 203 (176)]; xix. 12; xxvi. 24; Mk. xiv. 21; Lk. i. 35; Jn. iii. 4; [Acts vii. 20]; Ro. ix. 11; Heb. xi. 23; with the addition ε?? τ?ν κ?σμον, Jn. xvi. 21; foll. by ?ν with dat. of place, Acts xxii. 3; ?π? τινο?, to spring from one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. ?γεν?θ. see Tdf. ad loc.]; εκ τινο? to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16; ?κ πορνε?α?, Jn. viii. 41; ?ξ α?μ?των, ?κ θελ?ματο? ?νδρ??, Jn. i. 13; ?κ τ?? σαρκ??, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ?ν ?μαρτ?αι? ?λο?, Jn. ix. 34 (see ?μαρτ?α, 2 a.); ε?? τι, to be born for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adj.: τυφλ?? γεγ?ννημαι, Jn. ix. 2, 19 sq. 32; ?ωμα?ο? to be supplied, Acts xxii. 28; τ? διαλ?κτω, ?ν ? ?γενν?θημεν, Acts ii. 8; γεννηθε?? κατ? σ?ρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατ? πνε?μα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite: μ?χα?, 2 Tim. ii. 23 (βλ?βην, λ?πην, etc. in Grk. writ.). b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ?μ?? ?γ?ννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 “If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him”; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, it is used of God making Christ his son; α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υ??ν το? θεο?), viz. by the resurrection: Acts xiii. 33. β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but cf. the Comm. on the pass. that follow]: Heb. i. 5; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Ep. of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absol.: 1 Jn. v. 1; mostly in pass., ?κ θεο? or ?κ το? θεο? ?γενν?θησαν, γεγ?ννηται, γεγεννημ?νο?, etc.: Jn. i. 13; 1 Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.st γεγ?νηται]; iii. 9; iv. 7; v. 1, 4, 18; also ?κ το? πνε?ματο? γενν?σθαι, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], 8; ?ξ ?δατο? και πνε?ματο? (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff’s Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and reff. s. v. β?πτισμα, 3]), Jn. iii. 5; ?νωθεν γενν?σθαι, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see ?νωθεν, c.) equiv. to τ?κνον θεο? γ?νεσθαι, i. 12. [Comp.: ?να-γενν?ω.]* - ?, ?, τ? (ho, h?, to, 3588), originally τ??, τ?, τ?, (as is evident from the forms το?, τα? for ο?, α? in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, το? γ?ρ κα? γ?νο? ?σμ?ν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ? μ?ν... ? δ?, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μ?ν]; ο? μ?ν... ο? δ?, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; ο? μ?ν... ? δ?, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; το?? μ?ν... το?? δ?, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; ο? μ?ν... ?λλοι δ? (Lchm. ο? δ?)... ?τεροι δ?, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τιν?? foll. by ο? δ?, Acts xvii. 18; ?? (see ?? Ι.) μ?ν foll. by ο? δ?, Ro. xiv. 2; ο? δ? stands as though ο? μ?ν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ? δ?, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. ο? δ?]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; ο? μ?ν ο?ν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ? μ?ν ο?ν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, ? as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ? ?λιο?, ? ο?ραν??, ? γ?, ? θ?λασσα, ? θε??, ? λ?γο? (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ? δι?βολο?, τ? φ??, ? σκοτ?α, ? ζω?, ? θ?νατο?, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ? δικαιοσ?νη, ? σοφ?α, ? δ?ναμι?, ? ?λ?θεια, etc. ? ?ρχ?μενο?, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ? προφ?τη?, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ? σωτηρ?α, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ? γραφ?, etc.; ? νεφ?λη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; το?? ?γγ?λου?, Jas. ii. 25; τ? ?κτρ?ματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ? υ??? το? θεο?, ? υ??? το? ?νθρ?που, (see υ???); ? διδ?σκαλο? το? ?σρα?λ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as το?? μ?γου?, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; ο? ?σκο?, Mt. ix. 17; ο? δα?μονε?, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τ?ν ?νον κα? τ?ν π?λον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τ? βρ?φη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ?π? τ?ν δ?νδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τ? ?ερε?, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τ? πλο?ον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τ? ?ρο?, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τ? ?ρο? as used here generically or Hebraistically like ? ?ρειν?, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matth?usevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ? ο?κ?α, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ?π? τ?ν μ?διον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ?π? τ?ν λυχν?αν, ibid.; ?ν τ? φ?τν?, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ? ?παινο?, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ? δ?ξα, τ? κρ?το?, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, ? as ο? ?στ?ρε?, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; α? ?λ?πεκε?, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; ? or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in ο? Φαρισα?οι, ο? γραμματε??, ο? τελ?ναι, ο? ?νθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); ο? ?ετο?, Mt. xxiv. 28; το?? κυσ?ν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ? ?νθρωπο?, Mt. xv. 11; ? ?θνικ?? κ. τελ?νη?, Mt. xviii. 17; ? ?ργ?τη?, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ? μεσ?τη?, Gal. iii. 20; ? κληρον?μο?, Gal. iv. 1; ? δ?καιο?, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τ? σημε?α το? ?ποστ?λου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χα?ρε ? βασιλε?? τ?ν ?ουδ. (prop. σ? ? βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; να?, ? πατ?ρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ?γε ν?ν ο? πλο?σιοι, κλα?σατε, Jas. v. 1; ο?ραν? κα? ο? ?γιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: ε?πε or φησ? μεγ?λ? τ? φων?, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυν? προσευχομ?νη... ?κατακαλ?πτ? τ? κεφαλ?, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression!! ?χειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les ?paules larges); so, ?χειν τ?ν χε?ρα ξηρ?ν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τ? πρ?σωπον ?? ?νθρ?που [(Rec. ?νθρωπο?)], Rev. iv. 7; τ? α?σθητ?ρια γεγυμνασμ?να, Heb. v. 14; ?παρ?βατον τ?ν ?ερωσ?νην, Heb. vii. 24; τ?ν κατο?κησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τ?ν ε?? ?αυτο?? ?γ?πην ?κτεν?, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. α?το?, ?μ?ν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find ?ησο?? and ? ?η?., Πα?λο? and ? Πα?λ., etc. Πιλ?το? has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τ?το? is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τ? ?ωσ?φ, Mk. xv. 45; τ?ν ?ακ?β κα? τ?ν ?σα?, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τ?ν ν??ν ?ωσ?φ, Heb. xi. 21; τ?ν ν??ν ?μμ?ρ, Acts vii. 16; ? θε?? ?σα?κ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ?ταν ?ψησθε ?βρα?μ κ. ?σα?κ... κα? π?ντα? το?? προφ?τα?, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: ?βρα?μ ? πατ?ρ ?μ?ν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; ??κωβον τ?ν το? Ζεβεδα?ου κα? ?ω?ννην τ?ν ?δελφ?ν α?το?, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρ?α ? Μαγδαλην?, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; ?ω?ννη? ? βαπτιστ??, Mt. iii. 1; ?ρ?δη? ? τετρ?ρχη?, Lk. ix. 7; ?ησο?? ? λεγ?μενο? Χριστ??, Mt. i. 16; Σα?λο? δ? ? κα? Πα?λο? sc. καλο?μενο?, Acts xiii. 9; Σ?μωνο? το? λεπρο?, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτ?μαιο? ? τυφλ??, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρ?ου το? ?πολομ?νου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ? δ? ?ρ?δη? ? τετρ?ρχη?, Lk. iii. 19; τ?ν Σαο?λ, υ??ν Κ??, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Πα?λο? ?π?στολο?, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ? ?χα?α (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ? Γαλατ?α, ? Γαλιλα?α, ? ?ταλ?α, ? ?ουδα?α, ? Μακεδον?α (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Α?γυπτο?, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ?ν, ε?? and ?κ, are without the article; but we find ?π? (R G ?κ) τ?? ??μη? in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; το? Κεδρ?ν, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μο?, σο?, ?μ?ν, ?μ?ν, α?το?, ?αυτ?ν, α?τ?ν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ?μ?ν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ?μ??, σ??, ?μ?τερο?, ?μ?τερο?, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (? κρ?σι? ? ?μ?, Jn. v. 30; ? λ?γο? ? σ??, xvii. 17; ? κοινων?α ? ?μετ?ρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ? καιρ?? ? ?μ?τερο?, Jn. vii. 6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (το?? ?μο?? ??μασιν, Jn. v. 47; ? ?μη διδαχ?, vii. 16; τ?ν σ?ν λαλι?ν, iv. 42), yet this is always done by the other Ν. Τ. writ., Mt. xviii. 20; Mk. viii. 38; Lk. ix. 26; Acts xxiv. 6 [Rec]; xxvi. 5; Ro. iii. 7, etc. c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive, ? as τ? ?διον φορτ?ον, Gal. vi. 5; ? ?γαθ?? ?νθρωπο?, Mt. xii. 35; τ?ν δικα?αν κρ?σιν, Jn. vii. 24; ? ?γαθ? μ?ρι?, Lk. x. 42; τ? ?γιον πνε?μα, Lk. xii. 10; Acts i. 8; ? α??νιο? ζω?, Jn. xvii. 3, and many other exx.; ? or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τ? πνε?μα τ? ?γιον, Mk. iii. 29; Jn. xiv. 26; Acts i. 16; Heb. iii. 7; ix. 8; x. 15; ? ζω? ? α??νιο?, 1 Jn. i. 2; ii. 25; ? ποιμ?ν ? καλ??, Jn. x. 11; τ?ν π?λην τ?ν σιδηρ?ν, Acts xii. 10, and other exx.; ? very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts [xiv. 10 R G]; xxvi. 24; 1 Co. xi. 5, [cf. B. § 125, 5; W. § 20, 1 c.]. As to the adjectives of quantity, ?λο?, π??, πολ??, see each in its own place. d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ? κατ? ?κλογ?ν πρ?θεσι?, Rο. ix. 11; ? παρ? ?μο? διαθ?κη, Ro. xi. 27; ? λ?γο? ? το? σταυρο?, 1 Co. i. 18; ? ε?? Χριστ?ν π?στι?, Col. ii. 5; on the other hand, ? π?στι? ?μ?ν ? πρ?? τ?ν θε?ν, 1 Th. i. 8; τ?? διακον?α? τ?? ε?? το?? ?γ?ου?, 2 Co. viii. 4; see many other exx. of each usage in W. 131 (124) sqq.; [B. 91 (80) sqq.]. e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (ο?το?, ?κε?νο?) belonging to it either precedes or follows [W. § 18, 4; B. § 127, 29-31]; as, ? ?νθρωπο? ο?το?, Jn. ix. 24 [ο?το? ? ?νθρ. L Tr mrg. WH]; Acts vi. 13; xxii. 26; ? λα?? ο?το?, Mt. xv. 8; ? υ??? σου ο?το?, Lk. xv. 30; plur. Lk. xxiv. 17, and numberless other exx.; ο?το? ? ?νθρωπο?, Lk. xiv. 30; ο?το? ? λα??, Mk. vii. 6 [? λ. ο?τ. L WH mrg.]; ο?το? ? ν??? μου, Lk. xv. 24; ο?το? ? τελ?νη?, Lk. xviii. 11 [? τελ. ο?τ. L mrg.]; ο?το? ? λ?γο?, Jn. vii. 36 [? λ?γ. ο?τ. L T Tr WH], and many other exx. on ?κε?νο?, see ?κε?νο?, 2; on α?τ?? ? etc., see α?τ?? (I. 1 b. etc.); on ? α?τ?? etc., see α?τ??, III. 3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives [cf. W. §34, 2; B. § 128, 1]; as, τ? ?γαθ?ν, τ? καλ?ν (which see each in its place); τ? ?λαττον, Heb. vii. 7; with a gen. added, τ? γνωστ?ν το? θεο?, Ro. i. 19; τ? ?δ?νατον το? ν?μου, Ro. viii. 3; τ? ?σθεν?? το? θεο?, I Co. i. 25; α?τ??, Heb. vii. 18; τ? ??ρατα τ. θεο?, Ro. i. 20; τ? κρυπτ? τ?? α?σχ?νη?, 2 Co. iv. 2, etc. 4. The article with cardinal numerals: ε?? one; ? ε?? the one (of two), see ε??, 4 a.; but differently ? ε?? in Ro. v. 15, 17, the (that) one. So also o? δ?ο (our the twain), Mt. xix. 5; ο? δ?κα the (those) ten, and ο? ?νν?α, Lk. xvii. 17; ?κε?νοι ο? δ?κα (κα?) ?κτ?, Lk. xiii. 4. 5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives [W. §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; B. §§ 129, 1 b.; 144. 9]; as, ? πειρ?ζων, Mt. iv. 3; 1 Th. iii. 5; ? βαπτ?ζων, Mk. vi. 14 (for which Mt. xiv. 2 ? βαπτιστ??); ? σπε?ρων, Mt. xiii. 3; Lk. viii. 5; ? ?λοθρε?ων, Heb. xi. 28; ο? βαστ?ζοντε?, Lk. vii. 14; ο? β?σκοντε?, Mt. viii. 33; Mk. v. 14; ο? ?σθ?οντε?, the eaters (convivae), Mt. xiv. 21; τ? ?φειλ?μενον, Mt. xviii. 30, 34; τ? ?π?ρχοντα (see ?π?ρχω, 2). b. the ptcp. with the article must be resolved into he who [and a fin. verb; cf. B. § 144, 9]: Mt. x. 40; Lk. vi. 29; xi. 23; Jn. xv. 23; 2 Co. i. 21; Phil. ii. 13, and very often, π?? ? foll. by a ptcp. [W. 111 (106)], Mt. v. 22; vii. 26; Lk. vi. 30 [T WH om. L Tr mrg. br. art.]; xi. 10; Ro. ii. 1; 1 Co. xvi. 16; Gal. iii. 13, etc.; μακ?ριο? ? w. a ptcp., Mt. v. 4 (5), 6, 10, etc.; ο?α? ?μ?ν ο? w. a ptcp., Lk. vi. 25; the neut. τ? with a ptcp. must be resolved into that which [with a fin. verb], τ? γενν?μενον, Lk. i. 35; τ? γεγεννημ?νον, Jn. iii. 6. c. the article with ptcp. is placed in apposition: Mk. iii. 22; Acts xvii. 24; Eph. iii. 20; iv. 22, 24; 2 Tim. i. 14; 1 Pet. i. 21, etc. 6. The neut. τ? before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. B. 261 (225) sqq. [cf. W. § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.]); as, τ? καθ?σαι, Mt. xx. 23; Mk. x. 40; τ? θ?λειν, Ro. vii. 18; 2 Co. viii. 10; τ? ποι?σαι, τ? ?πιτελ?σαι, 2 Co. viii. 11, and other exx.; το?το κρ?νατε · τ? μ? τιθ?ναι κτλ. Ro. xiv. 13. On the infin. w. the art. depending on a preposition (?ντ? το?, ?ν τ?, ε?? τ?, etc.), see under each prep. in its place. b. Much more frequent in the Ν. Τ. than in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ., esp. in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the gen. το? w. an inf. (and in the Sept. far more freq. than in the Ν. Τ.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his Com. on Mt. p. 843 sqq.; W. § 44, 4; B. 266 (228) sqq. The examples fall under the foll. classes: το? with an inf. is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ?ξιον, 1 Co. xvi. 4; ?λαχε, Lk. i. 9 (1 S. xiv. 47); ?ξαπορο?μαι, 2 Co. i. 8. β. for the simple expletive [i. e. “complementary”] or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infin., which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase, (where in Germ. zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμ?α, 2 Co. viii. 11; βραδε??, Lk. xxiv. 25; ?λπ??, Acts xxvii. 20; 1 Co. ix. 10 [not Rec]; ?ζ?τει ε?καιρ?αν, Lk. xxii. 6 [not Lmrg.]; ? καιρ?? (sc. ?στ?) το? ?ρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Pet. iv. 17 (καιρ?ν ?χειν w. the simple inf. Heb. xi. 15); διδ?ναι τ?ν ?ζουσ?αν, Lk. x. 19 (?ξουσ?αν ?χειν with simple inf., Jn. xix. 10; 1 Co. ix. 4); ?φειλ?ται ?σμ?ν (equiv. to ?φε?λομεν), Ro. viii. 12 (with inf. alone, Gal. v. 3); ?τοιμον ε?ναι, Acts xxiii. 15 (1 Macc. iii. 58; v. 39; xiii. 37; with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 33); χρε?αν ?χειν, Heb. v. 12; ?δωκεν ?φθαλμο?? το? μ? βλ?πειν κα? ?τα το? μ? ?κο?ειν, that they should not see... that they should not hear [cf. B. 267 (230)], Ro. xi. 8 (?χειν ?τα elsewh. always with a simple inf.; see ο??, 2); ?πλ?σθη ? χρ?νο? το? τεκε?ν α?τ?ν, at which she should be delivered [cf. B. 1. c.], Lk. i. 57; ?πλ?σθ. ?μ?ραι... το? περιτεμε?ν α?τ?ν, that they should circumcise him [cf. B. 1. c], Lk. ii. 21; after ?ν?νδεκτ?ν ?στιν, Lk. xvii. 1 [so B. § 140, 15; (W. 328 (308) otherwise)]; quite unusually after ?γ?νετο [cf. B. § 140, 16 δ.; W. 1. c], Acts x. 25 [Rec. om. art.]. γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρ?νειν (see κρ?νω, 4); ?γ?νετο γν?μη [-μη? Τ Tr WH (see γ?νομαι, 5 e. α.)], Acts xx. 3; τ? πρ?σωπον ?στ?ριξεν, Lk. ix. 51; συντ?θεσθαι, Acts xxiii. 20 (with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 5); πρασε?χεσθαι, Jas. v. 17; παρακαλε?ν, Acts xxi. 12; ?ντ?λλεσθαι, Lk. iv. 10; ?πιστ?λλειν, Acts xv. 20 (with inf. alone, xxi. 25 [R G T, but L Tr txt. WH here ?ποστ?λ.; Β. 270 (232)]); κατανε?ειν, Lk. v. 7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing, (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well- known pleonasm with μ? before the inf. [see μ?, I. 4 a.; B. § 148, 13; W. 325 (305)]; thus, after κατ?χω τιν?, Lk. iv. 42; κρατο?μαι, Lk. xxiv. 16; κωλ?ω, Acts x. 47; ?ποστ?λλομαι, Acts xx. 20, 27; πα?ω, 1 Pet. iii. 10; καταπα?ω, Acts xiv. 18; without μ? before the inf. after ?γκ?πτομαι, Ro. xv. 22. ε. το? with an inf. is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Lk. xxi. 22; Acts ix. 15; xiii. 47; Phil. iii. 21; ε?? ?καθαρσ?αν το? ?τιμ?ζεσθαι τ? σ?ματα α?τ?ν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Ro. i. 24 [cf. B. § 140, 14]; W. 325 (305) sq. ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that [W. § 44, 4 b.; B. § 140,17]; esp. after verbs implying motion: Mt. ii. 13; iii. 13; xiii. 3, xxiv. 45; Mk. iv. 3 (where L Τ WH om. Tr br. το?); Lk. i. 77, 79; ii. 24, 27; v. 1 [R G L txt. Tr mrg.]; viii. 5; xii. 42 (here L om. Tr br. το?); xxii. 31; xxiv. 29; Acts iii. 2; xx. 30; xxvi. 18; Ro. vi. 6; xi. 10; Gal. iii. 10; Phil. iii. 10; Heb. x. 7, 9; xi. 5. η. used of result, so that: Acts vii. 19; Ro. vii. 3; after ποι?, to cause that, make to, Acts iii. 12; [cf. W. 326 (306); B. § 140, 16 δ.]. 7. The article with adverbs [B. § 125, 10 sq.; W. § 18, 3], a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τ? π?ραν, the region beyond; τ? ?νω, τ? κ?τω, τ? ν?ν, τ? ?μπροσθεν, τ? ?π?σω, etc.; see these words in their proper places. b. is used when they stand adjectively, as ? ?νω ?ερουσαλ?μ, ? τ?τε κ?σμο?, ? ?σω ?νθρωπο?, ? ν?ν α??ν, etc., on which see these several words. c. the neut. τ? is used in the acc. absol., esp. in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τ? π?λιν, 2 Co. xiii. 2; τ? ν?ν or ταν?ν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τ? λοιπ?ν, τ? πρ?τερον (Jn. vi. 62; Gal. iv. 13); τ? πρ?τον (Jn. x. 40; xii. 16; xix. 39); τ? πλε?στον (1 Co. xiv. 27); see these words themselves. 8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ?ν, ?ντε?, ?ντα, must be supplied in thought [cf. B. § 125, 9; W. § 18, 3]; thus, ο? ?π? ?ταλ?α?, ?π? Θεσσαλον?κη?, Acts xvii. 13; Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6; ? ?ν τινι, Mt. vi. 9; Ro. viii. 1; neut. τ? πρ??, Mk. ii. 2; ο? ?κ τινο?, Ro. ii. 8; iv. 14, 16; Phil. iv. 22 etc.; ο? παρ? τινο?, Mk. iii. 21 (see παρ?, I. e.). τ? περ? τινο?, Lk. xxiv. 19; Acts xxiv. 10; Phil. i. 27; [add, τ? (Τ Tr WH τ?) περ? ?μο?, Lk. xxii. 37], etc. (see περ?, I. b. β.); τ?. περ? τινα, Phil. ii. 23 [see περ?, II. b.]; ο? μετ? τινο?, those with one, his companions, Mt. xii. 3; ο? περ? τινα, and many other exx. which are given under the several prepositions, the neut. τ? in the acc. absol. in adverbial expression!!s [cf. W. 230 (216); B. §§ 125, 12; 131, 9]: τ? καθ’ ?μ?ραν, daily, day by day, Lk. xi. 3; xix. 47; Acts xvii. 11 [R G WH br.]; τ? καθ?λου, at all, Acts iv. 18 [L Τ WH om. τ?]; besides, in τ? κατ? σ?ρκα, as respects human origin, Ro. ix. 5 [on the force of the art. here see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. etc. for 1883, p. 108]; τ? κατ’ ?μ?, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Col. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 21; τ? ?ξ ?μ?ν, as far as depends on you, Ro. xii. 18; τ? ?φ’ ?μ?ν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Ro. xvi. 19 R G; τ? πρ?? (τ?ν) θε?ν, acc. absol., as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Ro. xv. 17; Heb. ii. 17; v. 1, (?ερε? τ? πρ?? το?? θεο??, στρατηγ? δ? τ? πρ?? το?? ?νθρ?που?, Xen. resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. iii. p. 262 sq.); τ? ?κ μ?ρου? sc. ?ν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Co. xiii. 10. 9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates kinship, affinity, or some hind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing [cf. W. § 30, 3; B. § 125, 7]; a. the masc. and the fem. article: ??κωβοw δ το? Ζεβεδα?ον, ? το? ?λφα?ου, the son, Mt. x. 2 (3), 3; Μαρ?α ? το? ?ακ?βου, the mother, Mk. xvi. 1 [Τ om. Tr br. το?]; Lk. xxiv. 10 [L Τ Tr WH]; ?μμ?ρ το? Συχ?μ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts vii. 16 R G; ? το? Ο?ρ?ου, the wife, Mt. i. 6; o? Χλ?η?, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Co. i. 11; also ο? ?ριστοβο?λου, ο? Ναρκ?σσου, Ro. xvi. 10 sq.; ο? το? Χριστο?, the followers of Christ [A. V. they that are Christ's], 1 Co. xv. 23 G L Τ Tr WH; Gal. v. 24; ο? τ?ν Φαρισα?ων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mk. ii. 18a Rec, 18b R G L; Καισαρε?α ? Φιλ?ππου, the city of Philip, Mk. viii. 27. b. τ? and τ? τινο?: as τ? το? θεο?, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opp. to τ? τ?ν ?νθρ?πων, Mt. xvi. 23; Mk. viii. 33; in the same sense τ? το? κυρ?ου, opp. to τ? το? κ?σμου, 1 Co. vii. 32?34; τ? τ?? σαρκ??, τ? το? πνε?ματο?, Ro. viii. 5; τ? ?μ?ν, your possessions, 2 Co. xii. 14; ζητε?ν τ? or τ? τινο?, 1 Co. x. 24; xiii. 5; Phil. ii. 21; τ? τ?? ε?ρ?νη?, τ?? ο?κοδομ??, which make for, Ro. xiv. 19; τ? τ?? ?σθενε?α? μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Co. xi. 30; τ? Κα?σαρο?, τ? το? θεο?, due to Cæsar, due to God, Mt. xxii. 21; Mk. xii. 17; Lk. xx. 25; τ? το? νηπ?ου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Co. xiii. 11; τ? τινο?, the house of one (τ? Λ?κωνο?, Theocr. 2, 76; [ε?? τ? το? ?δελφο?, Lysias c. Eratosth. § 12 p. 195]; cf. ?ν το?? πατρικο??, in her father's house, Sir. xiii. 10; [Chrysost. Hom. Iii. (on Gen. xxvi. 16), vol. iv. pt. ii. col. 458 ed. Migne; Gen. xli. 51; Esth. vii. 9, (Hebr. ??????); Job xviii. 19 (Hebr. ??????)]); with the name of a deity, the temple (τ? το? Δι??, Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 18, 2; also τ? το? Δι??, Lycurg. adv. Leocr. p. 231 [(orat. Att. p. 167, 15)]), Lk. ii. 49 (see other exx. in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100). τ? το? ν?μου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Ro. ii. 14; τ? τ?? παροιμ?α?, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22; τ? τ?ν δαιμονιζομ?νων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Mt. viii. 33; τ? τ?? συκ??, what has been done to the fig-tree, Mt. xxi. 21. 10. The neuter τ? is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception [B. § 125, 13; W. 109 (103 sq.)]: ε?πεν α?τ? τ? Ε? δ?νασαι πιστε?σαι, said to him this: “If thou canst believe”, Mk. ix. 23 [but L Τ Tr WH τ? Ε? δ?ν? “If thou canst I”]; cf. Bleek ad loc.; [Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.]. before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τ? Ο? φονε?σει?, the precept, “Thou shalt not kill”, Mt. xix. 18; add, Lk. xxii. 37 (where Lchm. ?τι for τ?); Ro. xiii. 9; [1 Co. iv. 6 L Τ Tr WH]; Gal. v. 14. before indir. questions: τ? τ?? etc., τ? τ? etc., τ? π?? etc., Lk. i. 62; ix. 46; xix. 48; xxii. 2, 4, 23 sq.; Acts iv. 21; xxii. 30; Ro. viii. 26; 1 Th. iv. 1; cf. Matthiae § 280; Kr?ger § 50, 6, 10; Passow ii. p. 395b; [L. and S. s. v. Β. I. 3 sq.]. b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement [reff. as above]: τ? ?γαρ, the name ?γαρ, Gal. iv. 25 [T L txt. WH mrg. om. Tr br. ?γαρ]; τ? ‘?ν?βη’, this word ?ν?βη, Eph. iv. 9, [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.]; τ? ‘?τι ?παξ’, Heb. xii. 27; cf. Matthiae ii. p. 731 sq. 11. We find the unusual expression!! ? ο?α? (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ? πληγ? or ? θλ?ψι? [W. 179 (169)]), misery, calamity, [A. V. the Woe], in Rev. ix. 12; xi. 14. III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the Ν. Τ. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (§ 19) and Alex. Buttmann (§ 124, 8) [cf. also Green ch. ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (ed. Rose) pp. 41 sqq., 94 sq.; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Grk. Text of the Ν. Τ., 3d ed. 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819], and only add the foll. remarks: 1. More or less frequently the art. is wanting before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the art. is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ?λιο?, γ?, θε??, Χριστ??, πνε?μα ?γιον, ζω? α??νιο?, θ?νατο?, νεκρο? (of the whole assembly of the dead [see νεκρ??, 1 b. p. 423b]); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as ν?μο? (the Mosaic law [see ν?μο?, 2 p. 428a]), κ?ριο?, πατ?ρ, ν???, ?ν?ρ (husband), γυν? (wife), etc. 2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place. or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, ε?? φνλακ?ν, ?ν φυλακ?, ε?? ??ρα, ?ν π?στεω?, κατ? σ?ρκα, ?π’?λπ?δα, παρ’ ?λπ?δα, ?π’ ?γορ??, ?π’ ?γρο?, ?ν ?γρ?, ε?? ?δ?ν, ?ν ?μ?ραι? ?ρ?δου, ε?? ?μ?ραν ?πολυτρ?σεω?, and numberless other examples. ? (ho), τε, ?, τε, τ?, τε, see τ? 2 a. - ?σα?κ (Isaak, 2464), ?, indecl. (???????, fr. ????? to laugh: Gen. xxi. 6; xvii. 17; in Joseph. ?σακο?, -ου), Isaac, the son of Abraham by Sarah: Mt. i. 2; viii. 11; xxii. 32; Ro. ix. 7, 10; Gal. iv. 28; Heb. xi. 9, 17 sq. 20; Jas. ii. 21, etc. - δ? (de, 1161) (related to δ?, as μ?ν to μ?ν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96; WH. App. p. 146; W. § 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opp. to a preceding statement: ??ν γ?ρ ?φ?τε... ??ν δ? μ? ?φ?τε, Mt. vi. 14 sq.; ??ν δ? ? ?φθαλμ?? κτλ. Mt. vi. 23; ?λε?σονται δ? ?μ?ραι, Mk. ii. 20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of, ? either with strong emphasis: ?γ? δ?, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ?με?? δ?, 1 Co. i. 23; 2 Co. x. 13; σ? δ?, Mt. vi. 6; ?με?? δ?, Mk. viii. 29; ο? δ? υ?ο? τ?? βασιλε?α?, Mt. viii. 12; α? ?λ?πεκε?... ? δ? υ??? το? ?νθρ. Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58; π?? ? λα??... ο? δ? Φαρισα?οι, Lk. vii. 29 sq.; ? δ? πνευματικ??, 1 Co. ii. 15, and often; ? or with a slight discrimination, ? δ?, α?τ?? δ?: Mk. i. 45; v. 34; vi. 37; vii. 6; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52; xv. 23 sqq.; Lk. iv. 40, 43; v. 16; vi. 8; viii. 10, 54; xv. 29; ο? δ?, Mt. ii. 5; Mk. iii. 4; viii. 28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a prop. name, as ? δ? ?ησο??: Mt. viii. 22 [Tdf. om. ?.]; ix. 12 [R G Tr br.], 22 [Tdf. om. ?.]; xiii. 57; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.]; ?ποκρ. δ? (?) Σ?μων, Lk. vii. 43 R G L br.; ? δ? Μαρ?α, Lk. ii. 19, etc. 2. μ?ν... δ?, see μ?ν. 3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (Germ. wohl aber): Mt. vi. 19 sq. (μ? θησαυρ?ζετε... θησαυρ?ζετε δ?); x. 5 sq.; Acts xii. 9, 14; Ro. iii. 4; iv. 5; 1 Co. i. 10; vii. 37; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec.]; Eph. iv. 14 sq.; Heb. ii. 5 sq.; iv. 13, 15; ix. 12; x. 26 sq.; xii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 12 (ο?χ ?αυτο?? ?μ?ν [Rec. ?μ.] δ?); Jas. i. 13 sq.; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that common δικαιοσ?νη which the Jews boast of and strive after, but δικαιοσ. δι? π?στεω?); Ro. ix. 30; 1 Co. ii. 6 (σοφ?αν δ? ο? το? α??νο? το?τον); Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Phil. ii. 8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 361 sq.; L. Dindorf in Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928; [cf. W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δ? metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Mt. i. 18; ii. 19; x. 21; Lk. xii. 13; xiii. 1; Jn. vii. 14, 37; Acts vi. 1; Ro. viii. 28; 1 Co. vii. 1; viii. 1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ?γ?νετο δ?, see γ?νομαι, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: Jn. iii. 19; vi. 39; 1 Co. i. 12; vii. 6, 29; Eph. v. 32, etc.; ? esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mk. v. 13 (?σαν δ? etc. R L br.); xv. 25; xvi. 8 [R G]; Jn. vi. 10; ix. 14; xii. 3; το?το δ? γ?γονε, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the Mss. (of prof. writ. also) with γ?ρ; cf. Winer on Gal. i. 11; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2; also his Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196; [W. 452 (421); B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. W. 443 (412)]: Mt. iii. 4; Lk. iv. 1; Ro. v. 8; 2 Co. ii. 12; v. 8; x. 2; Eph. ii. 4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts xi. 17 R G (1 Macc. xiv. 29, 2 Macc. i. 34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Col. i. 22 (21); cf. Matthiae ii. 1470; K?hner ii. 818; [Jelf § 770]; Klotz u. s. p. 370 sq.; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. κα?... δ?, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Mt. x. 18; xvi. 18; Lk. ii. 35 [WH txt. om. L Tr br. δ?]; Jn. vi. 51; xv. 27; Acts iii. 24; xxii. 29; Ro. xi. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 12; 1 Jn. i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. C45 sq.; B. 364 (312); [also W. 443 (413); Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. κα? ??ν δ? yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. δ? never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 11; xviii. 25; Mk. iv. 34; Lk. x. 31; Acts xvii. 6; xxviii. 6; Gal. iii. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 8, etc.; in ο? μ?νον δ?, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Mt. x. 18; Jn. vi. 51; viii. 16 sq.; 1 Jn. i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 L T Tr WH]. - ?ακ?β (Iak?b, 2384), ?, (?????? [i. e. heel-catcher, supplanter]), Jacob; 1. the second of Isaac’s sons: Mt. i. 2; viii. 11; Jn. iv. 5 sq.; Acts vii. 8; Ro. ix. 13, etc. Hebraistically i. q. the descendants of Jacob: Ro. xi. 26, (Num. xxiii. 7; Is. xli. 8; Jer. [Hebr. txt.] xxxiii. 26; Sir. xxiii. 12; 1 Macc. iii. 7, and often). 2. the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary the mother of the Saviour: Mt. i. 15 sq. - ?ο?δα? (Ioudas, 2455), -α, dat., -?, acc. -αν, [B. 20 (18)], ?, (???????, fr. the Hoph. of ?????, praised, celebrated; see Gen. xxix. 35), Judah or Judas (see below); 1. the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob: Mt. i. 2 sq.; Lk. iii. 33; Rev. v. 5; vii. 5; by meton., the tribe of Judah, the descendants of Judah: Heb. vii. 14; ? ο?κο? ?ο?δα, citizens of the kingdom of Judah, Heb. viii. 8. 2. Judah (or Judas) an unknown ancestor of Christ: Lk. iii. 26 R G L. 3. another of Christ’s ancestors, equally unknown: Lk. iii. 30. 4. Judas surnamed the Galilœan, a man who at the time of the census under Quirinus [better Quirinius], excited a revolt in Galilee: Acts v. 37 (Joseph. antt. 18, 1, 1, where he is called ? Γαυλαν?τη? because he came from the city Gamala, near the Lake of Galilee in lower Gaulanitis; but he is called also ? Γαλιλα?ο? by Joseph. antt. 18, 1, 6; 20, 5, 2; b. j. 2, 8, 1). 5. [Judas] a certain Jew of Damascus: Acts ix. 11. 6. Judas surnamed ?σκαρι?τη? (q. v.), of Carioth (from the city of Kerioth, Josh. xv. 25; Jer. xxxi. (xlviii.) 41; Amos ii. 2; [but see BB. DD. s. v. Kerioth]; some codd. in Jn. vi. 71 [cf. Tdf.’s note in loc.]; xii. 4, read ?π? Καρι?τον instead of ?σκαρι?τη?), the son of one Simon (who in Jn. vi. 71 L T Tr WH; xiii. 26 T Tr WH, is himself surnamed ?σκαρι?τη?), one of the apostles of Jesus, who betrayed him: Mt. x. 4; xxvi. 14, 25, 47; xxvii. 3; Mk. iii. 19; xiv. 10, 43; Lk. vi. 16; xxii. 3, 47 sq.; Jn. vi. 71; xii. 4; xiii. 2, 26, 29; xviii. 2 sq. 5; Acts i. 16, 25. Matthew (xxvii. 5), Luke (Acts i. 18), and Papias [cf. Wendt in Meyer’s Apostelgesch. 5te Aufl. p. 23 note] in a frag, quoted by Oecum. on Acts i. 18 differ in the account of his death, [see B. D. Am. ed. s. v.]; on his avarice cf. Jn. xii. 6. 7. Judas, surnamed Barsabas [or Barsabbas, see the word], a prophet of the church at Jerusalem: Acts xv. 22, 27, 32. 8. Judas, an apostle, Jn. xiv. 22, who is called ?ο?δα? ?ακ?βου in Lk. vi. 16; Acts i. 13 (see ??κωβο?, 4), and, as it should seem, was surnamed Lebbœus or Thaddœus (see Θαδδα?ο?). According to the opinion of the church he wrote the Epistle of Jude. 9. Judas, the brother of our Lord: Mt. xiii. 55; Mk. vi. 3, and very probably Jude 1; see ??κωβο?, 3.* - κα? (kai, 2532), a conj., and; the most freq. by far of all the particles in the N. T. [On its uses see W. § 53, 3 sqq.; B. 361 (310) sqq., and cf. Ellicott on Phil. iv. 12; on the difference between it and τ? see s. v. τ? ad init.] I. It serves as a copulative i. e. to connect (Lat. et, atque, Germ. und); 1. it connects single words or terms: a. univ., as ο? Φαρισα?οι κα? Σαδδουκα?οι, Mt. xvi. 1; ? θε?? κα? πατ?ρ, he who is God and Father (see θε??, 3); ?ν καρδ?? καλ? κα? ?γαθ?), Lk. viii. 15; πολυμερ?? κα? πολυτρ?πω?, Heb. i. 1; it is repeated before single terms, to each of which its own force and weight is thus given: ? υ?οθεσ?α κα? ? δ?ξα κα? α? διαθ?και κα? ? νομοθεσ?α κα? ? λατρε?α κα? α? ?παγγελ?αι, Ro. ix. 4; ?γ?α κα? δικα?α κα? ?γαθ?, Ro. vii. 12; add, Mt. xxiii. 23; Lk. xiv. 21; Jn. xvi. 8; Acts xv. 20, 29; xxi. 25; Heb. ix. 10; Rev. v. 12; xviii. 12 sq.; cf. W. 519 sq. (484). b. it connects numerals; and so that (contrary to the more com. usage) the greater number precedes: δ?κα κ. ?κτ?, Lk. xiii. 4, 11, [but in both pass. L and Tr br. WH om. κα?; Tdf. δεκαοκτ?], 16; τεσσαρ?κοντα κ. ?ξ, Jn. ii. 20; add, Jn. v. 5 G T; Acts xiii. 20; cf. W. § 37, 4; [Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. i. 18; noteworthy also is its use in 2 Co. xiii. 1 (cf. Deut. xix. 15 Sept.) ?π? στ?ματο? δ?ο μαρτ?ρων κα? τρι?ν (in Mt. xviii. 16 ? τρ. cf. W. 440 (410) note) at the mouth of two witnesses and (should there be so many) of three; a similar use of κα?, to lend a certain indefiniteness to the expression!!, occurs occasionally with other than numerical specifications, as Jas. iv. 13 σ?μερον κα? (Rst G; but L T Tr WH ?) α?ριον, cf. K?hner § 521, 2; Ebeling, Lex. Hom. s. v. p. 614a]. c. it joins to partitive words the general notion; so that it is equiv. to and in general, and in a word, in short: ? Π?τρο? κ. ο? ?π?στολοι, Acts v. 29; ο? ?ρχιερε?? [κα? ο? πρεσβ?τεροι Rec.] κα? τ? συν?δριον ?λον, Mt. xxvi. 59; κα? δικαι?μασι σαρκ??, Heb. ix. 10 Rec. Tr br. WH mrg.; κα? ?π? τ?ν ?σρα?λ το? θεο?, Gal. vi. 16, and often in Grk. writ.; cf. W. 437 sq. (407); 520 sq. (485); [B. 363 (311 sq.); 400 (343)]; with τ? preceding, ? τε... α?το? δ?ναμι? κα? θει?τη?, Ro. i. 20 [see τ?, 2 a.]; and, on the other hand, it joins to a general idea something particular, which is already comprised indeed in that general notion but by this form of expression!! is brought out more emphatically (which Strabo 8 (1) p. 340 calls συνκαταλ?γειν τ? μ?ρο? τ? ?λ?); so that it is equiv. to and especially [cf. W. u. s.]: τ? π?ντα κα? τ? τ?ν δαιμονιζομ?νων, Mt. viii. 33; το?? μαθητα?? α?το? κ. τ? Π?τρ?, Mk. xvi. 7; α? φωνα? α?τ?ν κ. τ?ν ?ρχιερ?ων, Lk. xxiii. 23 [R G]; σ?ν γυναιξ? κα? Μαρι?μ, Acts i. 14; ?ν ?ο?δ? κ. ?ερουσα?μ, 1 Macc. ii. 6; π?? ?ο?δα κ. ?ερουσαλ?μ, 2 Chr. xxxv. 24, cf. xxxii. 33; often so in Grk. writ. also. 2. It connects clauses and sentences; a. univ., as διακαθαριε? τ?ν ?λωνα α?το? κ. συν?ζει τ?ν σ?τον κτλ. Mt. iii. 12; ε?σ?λθαν... κα? ?δ?δασκον, Acts v. 21; and in innumerable other exx. b. In accordance with the simplicity of the ancient popular speech, and esp. of the Hebr. tongue, it links statement to statement, the logical relations of which the more cultivated language expresses either by more exact particles, or by the use of the participial or the relative construction (cf. W. § 60, 3; B. 288 (248) sqq.; 361 (310) sq.): e. g. that very freq. formula ?γ?νετο... κα? (see γ?νομαι, 2 b.); κα? ε?δον κα? (equiv. to ?τι) σεισμ?? ?γ?νετο, Rev. vi. 12; τ?ξεται υ??ν κ. καλ?σει? τ? ?νομα α?το? (equiv. to ο? ?νομα καλ?σει?), Mt. i. 21; καλ?ν ?στιν ?μ?? ?δε ε?ναι, κα? (equiv. to ?θεν) ποι?σωμεν σκην??, Mk. ix. 5; clauses are thus connected together in clusters; as, Mt. vii. 25, 27 (an example of six clauses linked together by κα?); Mt. xiv. 9 sqq.; Mk. i. 12-14; Lk. xviii. 32-34; Jn. ii. 13-16; x. 3; 1 Co. xii. 5-6; Rev. vi. 2, 8, 12-16; ix. 1-4 (where nine sentences are strung together by κα?), etc. after a designation of time κα? annexes what will be or was done at that time: ?γγικεν ? ?ρα κα? παραδ?δοται κτλ. Mt. xxvi. 45; ?ν δ? ?ρα τρ?τη κα? ?στα?ρωσαν α?τ?ν, Mk. xv. 25; ?γγ?? ?ν τ? π?σχα... κ. ?ν?βη ε?? ?εροσ. ? ?ησο??, Jn. ii. 13; ?μ?ραι ?ρχονται κα? συντελ?σω, Heb. viii. 8; add, Lk. xxiii. 44; Jn. iv. 35; v. 1; xi. 55; Acts v. 7; and not infreq. so in Grk. writ., as ?δη δ? ?ν ?ψ? κα? ο? Κορ?νθιοι ?ξαπ?νη? πρ?μναν ?κρο?οντο, Thuc. 1, 50; cf. Matthiae § 620, 1 a. p. 1481; W. 436 (405 sq.); [B. 361 (310)]. c. it joins affirmative to negative sentences, as μ? συκοφαντ?σατε κα? ?ρκε?σθε, Lk. iii. 14; ο?τε ?ντλημα ?χει? κα? τ? φρ?αρ ?στ? βαθ?, Jn. iv. 11; ο?τε... ?πιδ?χεται κα?... κωλ?ει, 3 Jn. 10, (rarely so in Grk. writ., as Eur. Iph. Taur. 578; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 714); much oftener it annexes a clause depending on the preceding negative: μ?ποτ? σε παραδ?... κα? ? κριτ?? σε παραδ?... κα? ε?? φυλακ?ν βληθ?σ?, Mt. v. 25; add, Mt. vii. 6; x. 38; xiii. 15; xxvii. 64; Lk. xii. 58; xxi. 34; Jn. vi. 53; xii. 40; Acts xxviii. 27; 1 Th. iii. 5; 1 Tim. vi. 1; Heb. xii. 15; Rev. xvi. 15; [see B. 368 (315) d.; cf. W. § 56, 2 a.]. d. it annexes what follows from something said before (κα? consecutive), so as to be equiv. to and so: Mt. v. 15 (κα? λ?μπει); Mt. xxiii. 32 (κα? πληρ?σατε); 2 Co. xi. 9 (κα? ?ν παντ?); Heb. iii. 19; 1 Jn. iii. 19 (κα? ?μπροσθεν); 2 Pet. i. 19 (κα? ?χομεν); so in statements after imperatives and words having the force of an imperative: δε?τε ?π?σω μου, κα? ποι?σω ?μ?? etc. Mt. iv. 19; ε?π? λ?γ?, κα? ?αθ?σεται ? πα?? μου, Mt. viii. 8; Lk. vii. 7; ?ντ?στητε τ? διαβ?λ? κα? φε?ξεται ?φ' ?μ?ν, Jas. iv. 7; add, Mt. vii. 7; Mk. vi. 22; Lk. x. 28; Jn. xiv. 16; Rev. iv. 1; cf. Fritzsehe on Mt. pp. 187 (and 416), [cf. Sir. ii. 6; iii. 17]. e. with a certain rhetorical emphasis, it annexes something apparently at variance with what has been previously said; so that it is equiv. to and yet (cf. Stallbaum on Plat. apol. p. 29 b.); so the Lat. atque (cf. Beier on Cic. de off. 3, 11, 48): Mt. iii. 14 (κα? σ? ?ρχ? πρ?? μ?); Mt. vi. 26; x. 29; Mk. xii. 12; Jn. i. 5 (κα? ? σκοτ?α κτλ.), 10 (κα? ? κ?σμο?); Jn. iii. 11, 32; v. 40 (κα? ο? θ?λετε); Jn. vi. 70; vii. 28; viii. 49, 55 (κα? ο?κ ?γν?κατε); Jn. ix. 30; 1 Co. v. 2; 2 Co. vi. 9; Heb. iii. 9; Rev. iii. 1 (... ζ??, κα? νεκρ?? ε?), etc. when a vain attempt is spoken of: Mt. xii. 43 (ζητε? κα? ο?χ ε?ρ?σκει); xiii. 17; xxvi. 60; Lk. xiii. 7; 1 Th. ii. 18. f. like the Hebr. ?? (see Gesenius, Thes. i. p. 396a), it begins an apodosis, which is thus connected with the protasis, cf. the Germ. da [or Eng. then], (in class. Grk. sometimes δ?; see δ?, 8) [cf. B. 362 (311) d.; W. § 53, 3 f.; Ellic. on Phil. i. 22]: with ?τε or a temporal ?? preceding in the protasis [as sometimes in Grk. prose (e. g. Thuc. 2, 93, where see Kr?ger)], Lk. ii. 21; Acts xiii. 18 sq. [here WH txt. om. κα?; see ??, I. 7]; ??... κα? ?δο?, Lk. vii. 12; Acts i. 10; x. 17 [R G Tr mrg. br.]; ??ν... κα? ε?σελε?σ. Rev. iii. 20 T WH mrg., although here κα?ι may be rendered also (I also will come in, etc.), declaring that, if the first thing (expressed in the protasis) be done, the second (expressed in the apodosis) will be done also. g. as in class. Grk., it begins a question thrown out with a certain impassioned abruptness and containing an urgent rejoinder to another’s speech (cf. W. § 53, 3 a.; Matthiae § 620, 1 d.; K?hner § 521, 3 ii. p. 791 sq.): κα? τ?? δ?ναται σωθ?ναι; Mk. x. 26; κα? τ?? ?στ? μου πλησ?ον; Lk. x. 29; κα? τ?? ?στιν κτλ. Jn. ix. 36 [G T Tr WH]; add, Jn. xiv. 22 [G T]. Peculiar is 2 Co. ii. 2: ε? γ?ρ ?γ? λυπ? ?μ??, κα? τ??... ?μο? (a swarm of exx. of this form of speech occur in Clem. homil. 2, 43, e. g. ε? ? θε?? ψε?δεται, κα? τ?? ?ληθε?ει;), where the writer after the conditional protasis, interrupting himself as it were, utters the substance of the negative apodosis in a new question, where we render who then is he that etc., for then there is no one who etc. h. it introduces parentheses [cf. W. § 62, 1]: κα? ?κωλ?θην ?χρι το? δε?ρο, Ro. i. 13 (Dem. Lept. p. 488, 9; so the Lat. et, e. g. praeda ? et aliquantum ejus fuit ? militi concessa, Liv. 27, 1); cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. i. p. 35 sq. 3. It annexes epexegetically both words and sentences (κα? epexegetical or ‘explicative’), so that it is equiv. to and indeed, namely, [W. § 53, 3 c.; of. § 66, 7 fin.]: χ?ριν κα? ?ποστολ?ν, Ro. i. 5, where cf. Fritzsche; περ? ?λπ?δο? κα? ?ναστ?σεω? νεκρ?ν, Acts xxiii. 6; πολλ?... κ. ?τερα, Lk. iii. 18; πολλ?... κα? ?λλα σημε?α, Jn. xx. 30; πολλ? κα? βαρ?α α?τι?ματα, Acts xxv. 7; πολλο? κ. ?νυπ?τακτοι, Tit. i. 10 [R G; on the preceding use of κα? cf. πολ??, d. α. fin.]; κα? [L br. κ.] ?ταν ?παρθ?, and indeed [i. e. viz.] when he shall be taken away etc. Lk. v. 35 [others find here an aposiopesis; cf. Meyer ad loc. (ed. Weiss)]; κα? χ?ριν ?ντ? χ?ριτο?, Jn. i. 16; κα? περισσ?ν ?χωσιν, Jn. x. 10, add 33 (where the words κα? ?τι κτλ. show what kind of blasphemy is meant); Acts v. 21 (on which see γερουσ?α); Ro. ii. 15 (where κα? μεταξ? κτλ. adds an explanation respecting the testimony of conscience); 1 Co. iii. 5; xv. 38, etc.; cf. Bornemann, Scholia, p. 38; Fritzsche, Quaest. Lcian. p. 9 sqq.; so the Lat. et in Cic. Tusc. 3, 20, 48 laudat, et saepe, virtutem; pro Mil. 25 te enim jam appello et ea voce ut me exaudire possis; cf. Ramshorn, Lat. Gram. ii. p. 809; [Harpers’ Lat. Dict. s. v. et, II. A.]; i. q. and indeed, to make a climax, for and besides: κα? ?κατ?κριτον, Acts xxii. 25; κα? το?τον ?σταυρωμ?νον, 1 Co. ii. 2; κα? το?το, Lat. idque (Cic. off. 1, 1, 1 te... audientem Cratippum idque Athenis), our and this, and that, and that too, i. q. especially: Ro. xiii. 11; 1 Co. vi. 6, and L T Tr WH in 8, (4 Macc. xiv. 9); also κα? τα?τα (com. in Grk. writ.), 1 Co. vi. 8 Rec.; Heb. xi. 12; cf. Klotz, Devar. i. p. 108; ii. 2 p. 652 sq.; [cf. W. 162 (153)]. 4. it connects whole narratives and expositions, and thus forms a transition to new matters: Mt. iv. 23; viii. 14, 23, 28; ix. 1, 9, 27, 35; x. 1; Mk. v. 1, 21; vi. 1, 6; Lk. viii. 26; Jn. i. 19 (cf. 15); 1 Jn. i. 4, etc.; esp. in the very com. κα? ?γ?νετο, Mt. vii. 28; Lk. vii. 11; viii. 1, etc. (see γ?νομαι, 2 b.). 5. κα?... κα?, a repetition which indicates that of two things one takes place no less than the other: both... and, as well... as, not only... but also, [W. § 53, 4]: it serves to correlate ? not only single terms, as κα? [L br. κ.] ψυχ?ν κα? σ?μα, Mt. x. 28; add, Mk. iv. 41; Jn. iv. 36 [here Tr WH om. first κ.]; Ro. xi. 33; Phil. ii. 13; iv. 12, etc.; κα? ?ν ?λ?γ? κα? ?ν πολλ? [L T Tr WH μεγ?λ?] both with little effort and with great [tat see μ?γα?, 1 a. γ. fin.], Acts xxvi. 29; but also clauses and sentences, as Mk. ix. 13; Jn. vii. 28; ix. 37; xii. 28; 1 Co. i. 22; and even things that are contrasted [cf. W. u. s.; B. § 149, 8 b.]: Jn. xv. 24; Acts xxiii. 3; κα?... κα? ο?, Lk. v. 36; Jn. vi. 36; now... now, Mk. ix. 22; κα? ο?... κα?, Jn. xvii. 25. 6. τ?... κα?, see τ?, 2. II. It marks something added to what has already been said, or that of which something already said holds good; accordingly it takes on the nature of an adverb, also (Lat. etiam, quoque. Germ. auch [cf. W. and B. as ad init. In this use it generally throws an emphasis upon the word which immediately follows it; cf. Klotz, Devar. ii. 2 p. 638.]); 1. used simply, a. also, likewise: Mt. v. 39 sq.; xii. 45; Mk. ii. 28; Lk. iii. 14; Jn. viii. 19; Ro. viii. 17; 1 Co. vii. 29; xi. 6, etc.; very freq. with pronouns: κα? ?με??, Mt. xx. 4, 7; Lk. xxi. 31; Jn. vii. 47, etc.; κ?γ?, κα? ?γ?, see κ?γ?, 2; κα? α?τ??, see α?τ??, I. 1 a. preceded by an adverb of comparison in the former part of the sentence: καθ??... κα?, Lk. vi. 31 [WH txt. om., L Tr mrg. br., κα? ?με??]; Jn. vi. 57; xiii. 15, 33; 1 Jn. ii. 18; iv. 17; 1 Co. xv. 49; ?σπερ... ο?τω κα?, Ro. xi. 30 sq.; 1 Co. xv. 22; Gal. iv. 29; καθ?περ... ο?τω κα?, 2 Co. viii. 11; ??... κα?, Mt. vi. 10; Lk. xi. 2 R L br.; Acts vii. 51 [L καθ??; 2 Co. xiii. 2 see ??, I. 1 fin.]; Gal. i. 9; Phil. i. 20, (Thuc. 8, 1; ?σπερ... κα?, Xen. mem. [2, 2, 2 (and K?hner ad loc.)]; 3, 1, 4; [4, 4, 7; cf. B. 362 (311) c.]); with ε? preceding, Gal. iv. 7. sometimes κα? stands in each member of the comparison: 1 Th. ii. 14; Ro. i. 13; Col. iii. 13, (2 Macc. ii. 10; vi. 14; also in Grk. writ., cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 635; K?hner on Xen. mem. 1, 1, 6 [also in his Grk. Gram. § 524, 2 vol. ii. 799; cf. Ellic. on Eph. v. 23; W. § 53, 5]). b. i. q. even [A. V. sometimes yea], (Lat. vel, adeo; Germ. sogar, selbst): Mt. v. 46 sq.; x. 30; Mk. i. 27; Lk. x. 17; 1 Co. ii. 10; Gal. ii. 17; Eph. v. 12, etc. c. before a comparative it augments the gradation, even, still, (Germ. noch): Mt. xi. 9; [Jn. xiv. 12]; Heb. viii. 6 [B. 363 (311) g.; al. regard the κα? in this pass. as corresponsive (also) rather than ascensive, and connect it with ?σ?]. d. with a ptcp. i. q. although [cf. Kr?ger § 56, 13, 2]: Lk. xviii. 7 R G [see μακροθυμ?ω, 2]. 2. joined with pronouns and particles, also; a. with comparative adverbs: ?? κα?, Acts xi. 17; 1 Co. vii. 7; ix. 5, etc.; καθ?? κα?, Ro. xv. 7; 1 Co. xiii. 12; 2 Co. i. 14; Eph.iv. 17, 32; v. 2, etc.; ο?τω κα?, Ro. v. 15 [WH br. κα?], 18 sq.; vi. 11; 1 Co. xi. 12, etc.; ?μο?ω? κα?, Jn. vi. 11; ?σα?τω? κα?, Lk. xxii. 20 [R G L Tr mrg., T Tr txt. WH κ. ?σ. (but WH reject the pass.)]; 1 Co. xi. 25; καθ?περ κα? (see καθ?περ). b. added to words designating the cause, it marks something which follows of necessity from what has been previously said: δι? κα?, Lk. i. 35; Acts x. 29; Ro. i. 24 Rec.; Heb. xiii. 12; [1 Pet. ii. 6 R]; δι? το?το κα?, Lk. xi. 49; Jn. xii. 18 [here Tr txt. om. Tr mrg. br. κα?]. c. after the interrog. τ?, κα? (which belongs not to τ?, but to the following word [to the whole sentence, rather; cf. B?umlein, Partikeln, p. 152]) points the significance of the question, and may be rendered besides, moreover, (Germ. noch) [cf. W. § 53, 3 a. fin.; esp. Kr?ger § 69, 32, 16]: τ? κα? βαπτ?ζονται; [A. V. why then etc.], 1 Co. xv. 29; τ? κα? ?λπ?ζει; (prop. why doth he also or yet hope for, and not rest in the sight?), Ro. viii. 24 [R G T]; ?να τ? κα?, Lk. xiii. 7. d. ?λλ? κα?, but also: Lk. xxiv. 22; Jn. v. 18; Ro. i. 32; v. 3, 11; viii. 23; ix. 10; 2 Co. vii. 7; viii. 10, 19, 21; ix. 12; 1 Jn. ii. 2, etc.; i. q. Lat. at etiam (in an apodosis after ε?): Ro. vi. 5 [W. 442 (412)]. e. δ? κα?, and δ?... κα?, but also, and also: Mt. iii. 10 [R G]; xviii. 17; xxvii. 44; Mk. xiv. 31 [WH br. δ?]; Lk. ii. 4; ix. 61; xiv. 12, 26 [L txt. Tr WH ?τι τε κα?, see ?τι, 2 fin.]; xviii. 1 [R G], 9 [L br. κα?]; Jn. ii. 2; iii. 23; xviii. 2, 5; Acts v. 16; 1 Co. i. 16; iv. 7; xiv. 15; xv. 15; 2 Co. iv. 3, etc. κα?... γ?ρ, ?αν κα?, ε? κα?, ? κα?, Kalye, κα?...δ?, see γ?ρ II. 10, ??ν I. 3, ε? III. 6 sq., ? 4 c., γ? 3 e., δ? 9. The examples of crasis with κα? in the N. T., viz. κ?γ? (κ?μο?, κ?μ?), κ?κε?, κ?κε?θεν, κ?κε?νο?, κ?ν, are noticed each in its place; for references see especially κ?γ?, init. - ?, ?, τ? (ho, h?, to, 3588), originally τ??, τ?, τ?, (as is evident from the forms το?, τα? for ο?, α? in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, το? γ?ρ κα? γ?νο? ?σμ?ν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ? μ?ν... ? δ?, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μ?ν]; ο? μ?ν... ο? δ?, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; ο? μ?ν... ? δ?, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; το?? μ?ν... το?? δ?, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; ο? μ?ν... ?λλοι δ? (Lchm. ο? δ?)... ?τεροι δ?, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τιν?? foll. by ο? δ?, Acts xvii. 18; ?? (see ?? Ι.) μ?ν foll. by ο? δ?, Ro. xiv. 2; ο? δ? stands as though ο? μ?ν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ? δ?, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. ο? δ?]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; ο? μ?ν ο?ν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ? μ?ν ο?ν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, ? as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ? ?λιο?, ? ο?ραν??, ? γ?, ? θ?λασσα, ? θε??, ? λ?γο? (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ? δι?βολο?, τ? φ??, ? σκοτ?α, ? ζω?, ? θ?νατο?, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ? δικαιοσ?νη, ? σοφ?α, ? δ?ναμι?, ? ?λ?θεια, etc. ? ?ρχ?μενο?, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ? προφ?τη?, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ? σωτηρ?α, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ? γραφ?, etc.; ? νεφ?λη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; το?? ?γγ?λου?, Jas. ii. 25; τ? ?κτρ?ματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ? υ??? το? θεο?, ? υ??? το? ?νθρ?που, (see υ???); ? διδ?σκαλο? το? ?σρα?λ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as το?? μ?γου?, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; ο? ?σκο?, Mt. ix. 17; ο? δα?μονε?, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τ?ν ?νον κα? τ?ν π?λον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τ? βρ?φη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ?π? τ?ν δ?νδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τ? ?ερε?, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τ? πλο?ον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τ? ?ρο?, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τ? ?ρο? as used here generically or Hebraistically like ? ?ρειν?, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p.
마태복음 1장 3절
마태복음 1장 3절 KJY : And Judas begat Phares and Zare of Tamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; NASB : Judah was the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar, Perez was the father of Hezron, and Hezron the father of Ram. ESV : and Judah the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar, and Perez the father of Hezron, and Hezron the father of Ram, NIV : Judah the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar, Perez the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram, 개역개정 : 유다는 다말에게서 베레스와 세라를 낳고 베레스는 헤스론을 낳고 헤스론은 람을 낳고 개역한글 : 유다는 다말에게서 베레스와 세라를 낳고 베레스는 헤스론을 낳고 헤스론은 람을 낳고 공동번역 : 유다는 다말에게서 베레스와 제라를 낳았고 베레스는 헤스론을, 헤스론은 람을, 표준새번역 : 유다는 다말에게서 베레스와 세라를 낳고, 베레스는 헤스론을 낳고, 헤스론은 람을 낳고, 쉬운성경 : 유다는 베레스와 세라를 낳았는데, 이들의 어머니는 다말입니다 베레스는 헤스론을 낳고, 헤스론은 람을 낳았습니다. 우리말 성경 : 유다는 다말에게서 베레스와 세라를 낳고 베레스는 헤스론을 낳고 헤스론은 람을 낳고 Greek : Ἰ.ού.δας δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Φά.ρες καὶ τὸν Ζά.ρα ἐκ τῆς Θα.μάρ, Φά.ρες δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἑσ.ρώμ, Ἑσ.ρὼμ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἀ.ράμ, - Ἰούδας (Ioudas, 2455), -α, dat., -ᾳ, acc. -αν, [B. 20 (18)], ὁ, (יִהוּדָה, fr. the Hoph. of יָדָה, praised, celebrated; see Gen. xxix. 35), Judah or Judas (see below); 1. the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob: Mt. i. 2 sq.; Lk. iii. 33; Rev. v. 5; vii. 5; by meton., the tribe of Judah, the descendants of Judah: Heb. vii. 14; ὁ οἶκος Ἰούδα, citizens of the kingdom of Judah, Heb. viii. 8. 2. Judah (or Judas) an unknown ancestor of Christ: Lk. iii. 26 R G L. 3. another of Christ’s ancestors, equally unknown: Lk. iii. 30. 4. Judas surnamed the Galilœan, a man who at the time of the census under Quirinus [better Quirinius], excited a revolt in Galilee: Acts v. 37 (Joseph. antt. 18, 1, 1, where he is called ὁ Γαυλανίτης because he came from the city Gamala, near the Lake of Galilee in lower Gaulanitis; but he is called also ὁ Γαλιλαῖος by Joseph. antt. 18, 1, 6; 20, 5, 2; b. j. 2, 8, 1). 5. [Judas] a certain Jew of Damascus: Acts ix. 11. 6. Judas surnamed Ἰσκαριώτης (q. v.), of Carioth (from the city of Kerioth, Josh. xv. 25; Jer. xxxi. (xlviii.) 41; Amos ii. 2; [but see BB. DD. s. v. Kerioth]; some codd. in Jn. vi. 71 [cf. Tdf.’s note in loc.]; xii. 4, read ἀπὸ Καριώτον instead of Ἰσκαριώτης), the son of one Simon (who in Jn. vi. 71 L T Tr WH; xiii. 26 T Tr WH, is himself surnamed Ἰσκαριώτης), one of the apostles of Jesus, who betrayed him: Mt. x. 4; xxvi. 14, 25, 47; xxvii. 3; Mk. iii. 19; xiv. 10, 43; Lk. vi. 16; xxii. 3, 47 sq.; Jn. vi. 71; xii. 4; xiii. 2, 26, 29; xviii. 2 sq. 5; Acts i. 16, 25. Matthew (xxvii. 5), Luke (Acts i. 18), and Papias [cf. Wendt in Meyer’s Apostelgesch. 5te Aufl. p. 23 note] in a frag, quoted by Oecum. on Acts i. 18 differ in the account of his death, [see B. D. Am. ed. s. v.]; on his avarice cf. Jn. xii. 6. 7. Judas, surnamed Barsabas [or Barsabbas, see the word], a prophet of the church at Jerusalem: Acts xv. 22, 27, 32. 8. Judas, an apostle, Jn. xiv. 22, who is called Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου in Lk. vi. 16; Acts i. 13 (see Ἰάκωβος, 4), and, as it should seem, was surnamed Lebbœus or Thaddœus (see Θαδδαῖος). According to the opinion of the church he wrote the Epistle of Jude. 9. Judas, the brother of our Lord: Mt. xiii. 55; Mk. vi. 3, and very probably Jude 1; see Ἰάκωβος, 3.* - δέ (de, 1161) (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96; WH. App. p. 146; W. § 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opp. to a preceding statement: ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε... ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε, Mt. vi. 14 sq.; ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμὸς κτλ. Mt. vi. 23; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, Mk. ii. 20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of, — either with strong emphasis: ἐγὼ δέ, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Co. i. 23; 2 Co. x. 13; σὺ δέ, Mt. vi. 6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mk. viii. 29; οἰ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Mt. viii. 12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες... ὁ δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρ. Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58; πᾶς ὁ λαὸς... οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι, Lk. vii. 29 sq.; ὁ δὲ πνευματικός, 1 Co. ii. 15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, ὁ δέ, αὐτὸς δέ: Mk. i. 45; v. 34; vi. 37; vii. 6; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52; xv. 23 sqq.; Lk. iv. 40, 43; v. 16; vi. 8; viii. 10, 54; xv. 29; οἱ δέ, Mt. ii. 5; Mk. iii. 4; viii. 28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a prop. name, as ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς: Mt. viii. 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; ix. 12 [R G Tr br.], 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; xiii. 57; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.]; ἀποκρ. δὲ (ὁ) Σίμων, Lk. vii. 43 R G L br.; ἡ δὲ Μαρία, Lk. ii. 19, etc. 2. μὲν... δέ, see μέν. 3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (Germ. wohl aber): Mt. vi. 19 sq. (μὴ θησαυρίζετε... θησαυρίζετε δέ); x. 5 sq.; Acts xii. 9, 14; Ro. iii. 4; iv. 5; 1 Co. i. 10; vii. 37; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec.]; Eph. iv. 14 sq.; Heb. ii. 5 sq.; iv. 13, 15; ix. 12; x. 26 sq.; xii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 12 (οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς ὑμῖν [Rec. ἡμ.] δέ); Jas. i. 13 sq.; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boast of and strive after, but δικαιοσ. διὰ πίστεως); Ro. ix. 30; 1 Co. ii. 6 (σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτον); Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Phil. ii. 8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 361 sq.; L. Dindorf in Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928; [cf. W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Mt. i. 18; ii. 19; x. 21; Lk. xii. 13; xiii. 1; Jn. vii. 14, 37; Acts vi. 1; Ro. viii. 28; 1 Co. vii. 1; viii. 1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: Jn. iii. 19; vi. 39; 1 Co. i. 12; vii. 6, 29; Eph. v. 32, etc.; — esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mk. v. 13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L br.); xv. 25; xvi. 8 [R G]; Jn. vi. 10; ix. 14; xii. 3; τοῦτο δὲ γέγονε, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the Mss. (of prof. writ. also) with γάρ; cf. Winer on Gal. i. 11; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2; also his Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196; [W. 452 (421); B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. W. 443 (412)]: Mt. iii. 4; Lk. iv. 1; Ro. v. 8; 2 Co. ii. 12; v. 8; x. 2; Eph. ii. 4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts xi. 17 R G (1 Macc. xiv. 29, 2 Macc. i. 34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Col. i. 22 (21); cf. Matthiae ii. 1470; Kühner ii. 818; [Jelf § 770]; Klotz u. s. p. 370 sq.; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. καὶ... δέ, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Mt. x. 18; xvi. 18; Lk. ii. 35 [WH txt. om. L Tr br. δέ]; Jn. vi. 51; xv. 27; Acts iii. 24; xxii. 29; Ro. xi. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 12; 1 Jn. i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. C45 sq.; B. 364 (312); [also W. 443 (413); Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. καὶ ἐὰν δέ yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 11; xviii. 25; Mk. iv. 34; Lk. x. 31; Acts xvii. 6; xxviii. 6; Gal. iii. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Mt. x. 18; Jn. vi. 51; viii. 16 sq.; 1 Jn. i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 L T Tr WH]. - γεννάω (gennaō, 1080), -ῶ; fut. γεννήσω; 1 aor. ἐγέννησα; pf. γεγέννηκα; [Pass., pres. γεννάομαι, -ῶμαι]; pf. γεγέννημαι; 1 aor. ἐγεννήθην; (fr. γέννα, poetic for γένος); in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down; in Sept. for יָלַד; to beget; 1. properly: of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16; Acts vii. 8, 29; foll. by ἐκ with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57; xxiii. 29; Jn. xvi. 21; εἰς δουλείαν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lcian. de sacrif. 6; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; al.; Sept. Is. lxvi. 9; 4 Macc. x. 2, etc.). Pass. to be begotten: τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθέν that which is begotten in her womb, Mt. i. 20; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 (250); B. 203 (176)]; xix. 12; xxvi. 24; Mk. xiv. 21; Lk. i. 35; Jn. iii. 4; [Acts vii. 20]; Ro. ix. 11; Heb. xi. 23; with the addition εἰς τὸν κόσμον, Jn. xvi. 21; foll. by ἐν with dat. of place, Acts xxii. 3; ἀπό τινος, to spring from one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. ἐγενήθ. see Tdf. ad loc.]; εκ τινος to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16; ἐκ πορνείας, Jn. viii. 41; ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός, Jn. i. 13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ὅλος, Jn. ix. 34 (see ἁμαρτία, 2 a.); εἴς τι, to be born for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adj.: τυφλὸς γεγέννημαι, Jn. ix. 2, 19 sq. 32; Ῥωμαῖος to be supplied, Acts xxii. 28; τῇ διαλέκτω, ἐν ῇ ἐγεννήθημεν, Acts ii. 8; γεννηθεὶς κατὰ σάρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατὰ πνεῦμα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite: μάχας, 2 Tim. ii. 23 (βλάβην, λύπην, etc. in Grk. writ.). b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ὑμάς ἐγέννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 “If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him”; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, it is used of God making Christ his son; α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ), viz. by the resurrection: Acts xiii. 33. β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but cf. the Comm. on the pass. that follow]: Heb. i. 5; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Ep. of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absol.: 1 Jn. v. 1; mostly in pass., ἐκ θεοῦ or ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν, γεγέννηται, γεγεννημένος, etc.: Jn. i. 13; 1 Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.st γεγένηται]; iii. 9; iv. 7; v. 1, 4, 18; also ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], 8; ἐξ ὕδατος και πνεύματος (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff’s Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and reff. s. v. βάπτισμα, 3]), Jn. iii. 5; ἄνωθεν γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see ἄνωθεν, c.) equiv. to τέκνον θεοῦ γίνεσθαι, i. 12. [Comp.: ἀνα-γεννάω.]* - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, xvii. 17; ἡ κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος, Jn. vii. 6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῥήμασιν, Jn. v. 47; ἡ ἐμη διδαχή, vii. 16; τὴν σὴν λαλιάν, iv. 42), yet this is always done by the other Ν. Τ. writ., Mt. xviii. 20; Mk. viii. 38; Lk. ix. 26; Acts xxiv. 6 [Rec]; xxvi. 5; Ro. iii. 7, etc. c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive, — as τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον, Gal. vi. 5; ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xii. 35; τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν, Jn. vii. 24; ἡ ἀγαθὴ μέρις, Lk. x. 42; τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Lk. xii. 10; Acts i. 8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, Jn. xvii. 3, and many other exx.; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, Mk. iii. 29; Jn. xiv. 26; Acts i. 16; Heb. iii. 7; ix. 8; x. 15; ἡ ζωὴ ἡ αἰώνιος, 1 Jn. i. 2; ii. 25; ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, Jn. x. 11; τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν, Acts xii. 10, and other exx.; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts [xiv. 10 R G]; xxvi. 24; 1 Co. xi. 5, [cf. B. § 125, 5; W. § 20, 1 c.]. As to the adjectives of quantity, ὅλος, πᾶς, πολύς, see each in its own place. d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις, Rο. ix. 11; ἡ παρ᾿ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Ro. xi. 27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Co. i. 18; ἡ εἰς Χριστὸν πίστις, Col. ii. 5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, 1 Th. i. 8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, 2 Co. viii. 4; see many other exx. of each usage in W. 131 (124) sqq.; [B. 91 (80) sqq.]. e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows [W. § 18, 4; B. § 127, 29-31]; as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, Jn. ix. 24 [οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρ. L Tr mrg. WH]; Acts vi. 13; xxii. 26; ὁ λαὸς οὗτος, Mt. xv. 8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Lk. xv. 30; plur. Lk. xxiv. 17, and numberless other exx.; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Lk. xiv. 30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mk. vii. 6 [ὁ λ. οὗτ. L WH mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ νἱός μου, Lk. xv. 24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Lk. xviii. 11 [ὁ τελ. οὗτ. L mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ λόγος, Jn. vii. 36 [ὁ λόγ. οὗτ. L T Tr WH], and many other exx. on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτὸς ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III. 3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives [cf. W. §34, 2; B. § 128, 1]; as, τὸ ἀγαθόν, τὸ καλόν (which see each in its place); τὸ ἔλαττον, Heb. vii. 7; with a gen. added, τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ, Ro. i. 19; τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Ro. viii. 3; τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ, I Co. i. 25; αὐτῆς, Heb. vii. 18; τὰ ἀόρατα τ. θεοῦ, Ro. i. 20; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Co. iv. 2, etc. 4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Ro. v. 15, 17, the (that) one. So also oἱ δύο (our the twain), Mt. xix. 5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Lk. xvii. 17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καὶ) ὀκτώ, Lk. xiii. 4. 5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives [W. §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; B. §§ 129, 1 b.; 144. 9]; as, ὁ πειράζων, Mt. iv. 3; 1 Th. iii. 5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mk. vi. 14 (for which Mt. xiv. 2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Mt. xiii. 3; Lk. viii. 5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Heb. xi. 28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Lk. vii. 14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Mt. viii. 33; Mk. v. 14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Mt. xiv. 21; τὸ ὀφειλόμενον, Mt. xviii. 30, 34; τὰ ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2). b. the ptcp. with the article must be resolved into he who [and a fin. verb; cf. B. § 144, 9]: Mt. x. 40; Lk. vi. 29; xi. 23; Jn. xv. 23; 2 Co. i. 21; Phil. ii. 13, and very often, πᾶς ὁ foll. by a ptcp. [W. 111 (106)], Mt. v. 22; vii. 26; Lk. vi. 30 [T WH om. L Tr mrg. br. art.]; xi. 10; Ro. ii. 1; 1 Co. xvi. 16; Gal. iii. 13, etc.; μακάριος ὁ w. a ptcp., Mt. v. 4 (5), 6, 10, etc.; οὐαὶ ὑμῖν οἱ w. a ptcp., Lk. vi. 25; the neut. τό with a ptcp. must be resolved into that which [with a fin. verb], τὸ γεννώμενον, Lk. i. 35; τὸ γεγεννημένον, Jn. iii. 6. c. the article with ptcp. is placed in apposition: Mk. iii. 22; Acts xvii. 24; Eph. iii. 20; iv. 22, 24; 2 Tim. i. 14; 1 Pet. i. 21, etc. 6. The neut. τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. B. 261 (225) sqq. [cf. W. § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.]); as, τὸ καθίσαι, Mt. xx. 23; Mk. x. 40; τὸ θέλειν, Ro. vii. 18; 2 Co. viii. 10; τὸ ποιῆσαι, τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Co. viii. 11, and other exx.; τοῦτο κρίνατε · τὸ μὴ τιθέναι κτλ. Ro. xiv. 13. On the infin. w. the art. depending on a preposition (ἀντὶ τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each prep. in its place. b. Much more frequent in the Ν. Τ. than in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ., esp. in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the gen. τοῦ w. an inf. (and in the Sept. far more freq. than in the Ν. Τ.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his Com. on Mt. p. 843 sqq.; W. § 44, 4; B. 266 (228) sqq. The examples fall under the foll. classes: τοῦ with an inf. is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Co. xvi. 4; ἔλαχε, Lk. i. 9 (1 S. xiv. 47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Co. i. 8. β. for the simple expletive [i. e. “complementary”] or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infin., which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase, (where in Germ. zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Co. viii. 11; βραδεῖς, Lk. xxiv. 25; ἐλπίς, Acts xxvii. 20; 1 Co. ix. 10 [not Rec]; ἐζήτει εῦκαιρίαν, Lk. xxii. 6 [not Lmrg.]; ὁ καιρὸς (sc. ἐστί) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Pet. iv. 17 (καιρὸν ἔχειν w. the simple inf. Heb. xi. 15); διδόναι τὴν ἐζουσίαν, Lk. x. 19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple inf., Jn. xix. 10; 1 Co. ix. 4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν (equiv. to ὀφείλομεν), Ro. viii. 12 (with inf. alone, Gal. v. 3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts xxiii. 15 (1 Macc. iii. 58; v. 39; xiii. 37; with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Heb. v. 12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, that they should not see... that they should not hear [cf. B. 267 (230)], Ro. xi. 8 (ἔχειν ὦτα elsewh. always with a simple inf.; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered [cf. B. 1. c.], Lk. i. 57; ἐπλήσθ. ἡμέραι... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him [cf. B. 1. c], Lk. ii. 21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Lk. xvii. 1 [so B. § 140, 15; (W. 328 (308) otherwise)]; quite unusually after ἐγένετο [cf. B. § 140, 16 δ.; W. 1. c], Acts x. 25 [Rec. om. art.]. γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη [-μης Τ Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. α.)], Acts xx. 3; τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Lk. ix. 51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts xxiii. 20 (with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 5); πρασεύχεσθαι, Jas. v. 17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts xxi. 12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Lk. iv. 10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts xv. 20 (with inf. alone, xxi. 25 [R G T, but L Tr txt. WH here ἀποστέλ.; Β. 270 (232)]); κατανεύειν, Lk. v. 7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing, (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well- known pleonasm with μή before the inf. [see μή, I. 4 a.; B. § 148, 13; W. 325 (305)]; thus, after κατέχω τινά, Lk. iv. 42; κρατοῦμαι, Lk. xxiv. 16; κωλύω, Acts x. 47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts xx. 20, 27; παύω, 1 Pet. iii. 10; καταπαύω, Acts xiv. 18; without μή before the inf. after ἐγκόπτομαι, Ro. xv. 22. ε. τοῦ with an inf. is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Lk. xxi. 22; Acts ix. 15; xiii. 47; Phil. iii. 21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Ro. i. 24 [cf. B. § 140, 14]; W. 325 (305) sq. ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that [W. § 44, 4 b.; B. § 140,17]; esp. after verbs implying motion: Mt. ii. 13; iii. 13; xiii. 3, xxiv. 45; Mk. iv. 3 (where L Τ WH om. Tr br. τοῦ); Lk. i. 77, 79; ii. 24, 27; v. 1 [R G L txt. Tr mrg.]; viii. 5; xii. 42 (here L om. Tr br. τοῦ); xxii. 31; xxiv. 29; Acts iii. 2; xx. 30; xxvi. 18; Ro. vi. 6; xi. 10; Gal. iii. 10; Phil. iii. 10; Heb. x. 7, 9; xi. 5. η. used of result, so that: Acts vii. 19; Ro. vii. 3; after ποιῶ, to cause that, make to, Acts iii. 12; [cf. W. 326 (306); B. § 140, 16 δ.]. 7. The article with adverbs [B. § 125, 10 sq.; W. § 18, 3], a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τὸ πέραν, the region beyond; τὰ ἄνω, τὰ κάτω, τὸ νῦν, τὰ ἔμπροσθεν, τὰ ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places. b. is used when they stand adjectively, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words. c. the neut. τό is used in the acc. absol., esp. in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τὸ πάλιν, 2 Co. xiii. 2; τὰ νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τὸ λοιπόν, τὸ πρότερον (Jn. vi. 62; Gal. iv. 13); τὸ πρῶτον (Jn. x. 40; xii. 16; xix. 39); τὸ πλεῖστον (1 Co. xiv. 27); see these words themselves. 8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought [cf. B. § 125, 9; W. § 18, 3]; thus, οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας, ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts xvii. 13; Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6; ὁ ἔν τινι, Mt. vi. 9; Ro. viii. 1; neut. τὰ πρός, Mk. ii. 2; οἱ ἔκ τινος, Ro. ii. 8; iv. 14, 16; Phil. iv. 22 etc.; οἱ παρά τινος, Mk. iii. 21 (see παρά, I. e.). τὰ περί τινος, Lk. xxiv. 19; Acts xxiv. 10; Phil. i. 27; [add, τὰ (Τ Tr WH τὸ) περὶ ἐμοῦ, Lk. xxii. 37], etc. (see περί, I. b. β.); τὰ. περί τινα, Phil. ii. 23 [see περί, II. b.]; οἱ μετά τινος, those with one, his companions, Mt. xii. 3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other exx. which are given under the several prepositions, the neut. τό in the acc. absol. in adverbial expression!s [cf. W. 230 (216); B. §§ 125, 12; 131, 9]: τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Lk. xi. 3; xix. 47; Acts xvii. 11 [R G WH br.]; τὸ καθόλου, at all, Acts iv. 18 [L Τ WH om. τό]; besides, in τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, as respects human origin, Ro. ix. 5 [on the force of the art. here see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. etc. for 1883, p. 108]; τὰ κατ’ ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Col. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 21; τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Ro. xii. 18; τὸ ἐφ’ ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Ro. xvi. 19 R G; τὰ πρὸς (τὸν) θεόν, acc. absol., as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Ro. xv. 17; Heb. ii. 17; v. 1, (ἱερεῖ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεούς, στρατηγῷ δὲ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, Xen. resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. iii. p. 262 sq.); τὸ ἐκ μέρους sc. ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Co. xiii. 10. 9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates kinship, affinity, or some hind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing [cf. W. § 30, 3; B. § 125, 7]; a. the masc. and the fem. article: Ἰάκωβοw δ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίον, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Mt. x. 2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mk. xvi. 1 [Τ om. Tr br. τοῦ]; Lk. xxiv. 10 [L Τ Tr WH]; Ἐμμὸρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts vii. 16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Οὐρίου, the wife, Mt. i. 6; oἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Co. i. 11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Ro. xvi. 10 sq.; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ [A. V. they that are Christ's], 1 Co. xv. 23 G L Τ Tr WH; Gal. v. 24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mk. ii. 18a Rec, 18b R G L; Καισαρεία ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mk. viii. 27. b. τό and τά τινος: as τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opp. to τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Mt. xvi. 23; Mk. viii. 33; in the same sense τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, opp. to τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Co. vii. 32—34; τὰ τῆς σαρκός, τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, Ro. viii. 5; τὰ ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Co. xii. 14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τινος, 1 Co. x. 24; xiii. 5; Phil. ii. 21; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Ro. xiv. 19; τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Co. xi. 30; τὰ Καίσαρος, τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, due to Cæsar, due to God, Mt. xxii. 21; Mk. xii. 17; Lk. xx. 25; τὰ τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Co. xiii. 11; τὰ τινος, the house of one (τὰ Λύκωνος, Theocr. 2, 76; [εἰς τὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosth. § 12 p. 195]; cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. xiii. 10; [Chrysost. Hom. Iii. (on Gen. xxvi. 16), vol. iv. pt. ii. col. 458 ed. Migne; Gen. xli. 51; Esth. vii. 9, (Hebr. בַּיִת); Job xviii. 19 (Hebr. מָגוּר)]); with the name of a deity, the temple (τὰ τοῦ Διός, Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 18, 2; also τὸ τοῦ Διός, Lycurg. adv. Leocr. p. 231 [(orat. Att. p. 167, 15)]), Lk. ii. 49 (see other exx. in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100). τὰ τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Ro. ii. 14; τὸ τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22; τὰ τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Mt. viii. 33; τὸ τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Mt. xxi. 21. 10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception [B. § 125, 13; W. 109 (103 sq.)]: εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: “If thou canst believe”, Mk. ix. 23 [but L Τ Tr WH τό Εἰ δύνῃ “If thou canst I”]; cf. Bleek ad loc.; [Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.]. before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, “Thou shalt not kill”, Mt. xix. 18; add, Lk. xxii. 37 (where Lchm. ὅτι for τό); Ro. xiii. 9; [1 Co. iv. 6 L Τ Tr WH]; Gal. v. 14. before indir. questions: τὸ τὶς etc., τὸ τί etc., τὸ πῶς etc., Lk. i. 62; ix. 46; xix. 48; xxii. 2, 4, 23 sq.; Acts iv. 21; xxii. 30; Ro. viii. 26; 1 Th. iv. 1; cf. Matthiae § 280; Krüger § 50, 6, 10; Passow ii. p. 395b; [L. and S. s. v. Β. I. 3 sq.]. b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement [reff. as above]: τὸ Ἄγαρ, the name Ἄγαρ, Gal. iv. 25 [T L txt. WH mrg. om. Tr br. Ἄγαρ]; τὸ ‘ἀνέβη’, this word ἀνέβη, Eph. iv. 9, [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.]; τὸ ‘ἔτι ἅπαξ’, Heb. xii. 27; cf. Matthiae ii. p. 731 sq. 11. We find the unusual expression! ἡ οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλίψις [W. 179 (169)]), misery, calamity, [A. V. the Woe], in Rev. ix. 12; xi. 14. III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the Ν. Τ. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (§ 19) and Alex. Buttmann (§ 124, 8) [cf. also Green ch. ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (ed. Rose) pp. 41 sqq., 94 sq.; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Grk. Text of the Ν. Τ., 3d ed. 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819], and only add the foll. remarks: 1. More or less frequently the art. is wanting before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the art. is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἄγιον, ζωὴ αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead [see νεκρός, 1 b. p. 423b]); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law [see νόμος, 2 p. 428a]), κύριος, πατήρ, νἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc. 2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place. or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φνλακήν, ἐν φυλακῇ, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐν πίστεως, κατὰ σάρκα, ἐπ’ἐλπίδα, παρ’ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ’ ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ’ ἀγροῦ, ἐν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρώδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples. ὅ (ho), τε, ἥ, τε, τό, τε, see τέ 2 a. - Φαρές (Phares, 5329) [on its accent see Tdf. Proleg. p. 104], ὁ, (פֶּרֶץ a breach, Gen. xxxviii. 29), Perez [A. V. Phares], a son of Judah by Tamar his daughter-in-law: Mt. i. 3; Lk. iii. 33.* - καί (kai, 2532), a conj., and; the most freq. by far of all the particles in the N. T. [On its uses see W. § 53, 3 sqq.; B. 361 (310) sqq., and cf. Ellicott on Phil. iv. 12; on the difference between it and τέ see s. v. τέ ad init.] I. It serves as a copulative i. e. to connect (Lat. et, atque, Germ. und); 1. it connects single words or terms: a. univ., as οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ Σαδδουκαῖοι, Mt. xvi. 1; ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατήρ, he who is God and Father (see θεός, 3); ἐν καρδίᾳ καλῇ καὶ ἀγαθῇ), Lk. viii. 15; πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως, Heb. i. 1; it is repeated before single terms, to each of which its own force and weight is thus given: ἡ υἱοθεσία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ αἱ διαθῆκαι καὶ ἡ νομοθεσία καὶ ἡ λατρεία καὶ αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι, Ro. ix. 4; ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή, Ro. vii. 12; add, Mt. xxiii. 23; Lk. xiv. 21; Jn. xvi. 8; Acts xv. 20, 29; xxi. 25; Heb. ix. 10; Rev. v. 12; xviii. 12 sq.; cf. W. 519 sq. (484). b. it connects numerals; and so that (contrary to the more com. usage) the greater number precedes: δέκα κ. ὀκτώ, Lk. xiii. 4, 11, [but in both pass. L and Tr br. WH om. καί; Tdf. δεκαοκτώ], 16; τεσσαράκοντα κ. ἕξ, Jn. ii. 20; add, Jn. v. 5 G T; Acts xiii. 20; cf. W. § 37, 4; [Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. i. 18; noteworthy also is its use in 2 Co. xiii. 1 (cf. Deut. xix. 15 Sept.) ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ τριῶν (in Mt. xviii. 16 ἣ τρ. cf. W. 440 (410) note) at the mouth of two witnesses and (should there be so many) of three; a similar use of καί, to lend a certain indefiniteness to the expression!, occurs occasionally with other than numerical specifications, as Jas. iv. 13 σήμερον καὶ (Rst G; but L T Tr WH ἢ) αὔριον, cf. Kühner § 521, 2; Ebeling, Lex. Hom. s. v. p. 614a]. c. it joins to partitive words the general notion; so that it is equiv. to and in general, and in a word, in short: ὁ Πέτρος κ. οἱ ἀπόστολοι, Acts v. 29; οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς [καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι Rec.] καὶ τὸ συνέδριον ὅλον, Mt. xxvi. 59; καὶ δικαιώμασι σαρκός, Heb. ix. 10 Rec. Tr br. WH mrg.; καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ θεοῦ, Gal. vi. 16, and often in Grk. writ.; cf. W. 437 sq. (407); 520 sq. (485); [B. 363 (311 sq.); 400 (343)]; with τέ preceding, ἥ τε... αὐτοῦ δύναμις καὶ θειότης, Ro. i. 20 [see τέ, 2 a.]; and, on the other hand, it joins to a general idea something particular, which is already comprised indeed in that general notion but by this form of expression! is brought out more emphatically (which Strabo 8 (1) p. 340 calls συνκαταλέγειν τὸ μέρος τῷ ὅλῳ); so that it is equiv. to and especially [cf. W. u. s.]: τὰ πάντα καὶ τὰ τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, Mt. viii. 33; τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ κ. τῷ Πέτρῳ, Mk. xvi. 7; αἱ φωναὶ αὐτῶν κ. τῶν ἀρχιερέων, Lk. xxiii. 23 [R G]; σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ Μαριάμ, Acts i. 14; ἐν Ἰούδᾳ κ. Ἱερουσαήμ, 1 Macc. ii. 6; πᾶς Ἰούδα κ. Ἱερουσαλήμ, 2 Chr. xxxv. 24, cf. xxxii. 33; often so in Grk. writ. also. 2. It connects clauses and sentences; a. univ., as διακαθαριεῖ τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ κ. συνάζει τὸν σῖτον κτλ. Mt. iii. 12; εἰσῆλθαν... καὶ ἐδίδασκον, Acts v. 21; and in innumerable other exx. b. In accordance with the simplicity of the ancient popular speech, and esp. of the Hebr. tongue, it links statement to statement, the logical relations of which the more cultivated language expresses either by more exact particles, or by the use of the participial or the relative construction (cf. W. § 60, 3; B. 288 (248) sqq.; 361 (310) sq.): e. g. that very freq. formula ἐγένετο... καί (see γίνομαι, 2 b.); καὶ εἶδον καὶ (equiv. to ὅτι) σεισμὸς ἐγένετο, Rev. vi. 12; τέξεται υἱὸν κ. καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (equiv. to οὗ ὄνομα καλέσεις), Mt. i. 21; καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ (equiv. to ὅθεν) ποιήσωμεν σκηνάς, Mk. ix. 5; clauses are thus connected together in clusters; as, Mt. vii. 25, 27 (an example of six clauses linked together by καί); Mt. xiv. 9 sqq.; Mk. i. 12-14; Lk. xviii. 32-34; Jn. ii. 13-16; x. 3; 1 Co. xii. 5-6; Rev. vi. 2, 8, 12-16; ix. 1-4 (where nine sentences are strung together by καί), etc. after a designation of time καί annexes what will be or was done at that time: ἤγγικεν ἡ ὥρα καὶ παραδίδοται κτλ. Mt. xxvi. 45; ἦν δὲ ὥρα τρίτη καὶ ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν, Mk. xv. 25; ἐγγὺς ἦν τὸ πάσχα... κ. ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσ. ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Jn. ii. 13; ἡμέραι ἔρχονται καὶ συντελέσω, Heb. viii. 8; add, Lk. xxiii. 44; Jn. iv. 35; v. 1; xi. 55; Acts v. 7; and not infreq. so in Grk. writ., as ἤδη δὲ ἦν ὀψὲ καὶ οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἐξαπίνης πρύμναν ἐκρούοντο, Thuc. 1, 50; cf. Matthiae § 620, 1 a. p. 1481; W. 436 (405 sq.); [B. 361 (310)]. c. it joins affirmative to negative sentences, as μὴ συκοφαντήσατε καὶ ἀρκεῖσθε, Lk. iii. 14; οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις καὶ τὸ φρέαρ ἐστί βαθύ, Jn. iv. 11; οὔτε... ἐπιδέχεται καὶ... κωλύει, 3 Jn. 10, (rarely so in Grk. writ., as Eur. Iph. Taur. 578; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 714); much oftener it annexes a clause depending on the preceding negative: μήποτέ σε παραδῷ... καὶ ὁ κριτής σε παραδῷ... καὶ εἰς φυλακὴν βληθήσῃ, Mt. v. 25; add, Mt. vii. 6; x. 38; xiii. 15; xxvii. 64; Lk. xii. 58; xxi. 34; Jn. vi. 53; xii. 40; Acts xxviii. 27; 1 Th. iii. 5; 1 Tim. vi. 1; Heb. xii. 15; Rev. xvi. 15; [see B. 368 (315) d.; cf. W. § 56, 2 a.]. d. it annexes what follows from something said before (καί consecutive), so as to be equiv. to and so: Mt. v. 15 (καὶ λάμπει); Mt. xxiii. 32 (καὶ πληρώσατε); 2 Co. xi. 9 (καὶ ἐν παντί); Heb. iii. 19; 1 Jn. iii. 19 (καὶ ἔμπροσθεν); 2 Pet. i. 19 (καὶ ἔχομεν); so in statements after imperatives and words having the force of an imperative: δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καὶ ποιήσω ὑμᾶς etc. Mt. iv. 19; εἰπὲ λόγῳ, καὶ ἰαθήσεται ὁ παῖς μου, Mt. viii. 8; Lk. vii. 7; ἀντίστητε τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ φεύξεται ἀφ' ὑμῶν, Jas. iv. 7; add, Mt. vii. 7; Mk. vi. 22; Lk. x. 28; Jn. xiv. 16; Rev. iv. 1; cf. Fritzsehe on Mt. pp. 187 (and 416), [cf. Sir. ii. 6; iii. 17]. e. with a certain rhetorical emphasis, it annexes something apparently at variance with what has been previously said; so that it is equiv. to and yet (cf. Stallbaum on Plat. apol. p. 29 b.); so the Lat. atque (cf. Beier on Cic. de off. 3, 11, 48): Mt. iii. 14 (καὶ σὺ ἔρχῃ πρὸς μέ); Mt. vi. 26; x. 29; Mk. xii. 12; Jn. i. 5 (καὶ ἡ σκοτία κτλ.), 10 (καὶ ὁ κόσμος); Jn. iii. 11, 32; v. 40 (καὶ οὐ θέλετε); Jn. vi. 70; vii. 28; viii. 49, 55 (καὶ οὐκ ἐγνώκατε); Jn. ix. 30; 1 Co. v. 2; 2 Co. vi. 9; Heb. iii. 9; Rev. iii. 1 (... ζῇς, καὶ νεκρὸς εἶ), etc. when a vain attempt is spoken of: Mt. xii. 43 (ζητεῖ καὶ οὐχ εὑρίσκει); xiii. 17; xxvi. 60; Lk. xiii. 7; 1 Th. ii. 18. f. like the Hebr. וְ (see Gesenius, Thes. i. p. 396a), it begins an apodosis, which is thus connected with the protasis, cf. the Germ. da [or Eng. then], (in class. Grk. sometimes δέ; see δέ, 8) [cf. B. 362 (311) d.; W. § 53, 3 f.; Ellic. on Phil. i. 22]: with ὅτε or a temporal ὡς preceding in the protasis [as sometimes in Grk. prose (e. g. Thuc. 2, 93, where see Krüger)], Lk. ii. 21; Acts xiii. 18 sq. [here WH txt. om. καί; see ὡς, I. 7]; ὡς... καὶ ἰδού, Lk. vii. 12; Acts i. 10; x. 17 [R G Tr mrg. br.]; ἐὰν... καὶ εἰσελεύσ. Rev. iii. 20 T WH mrg., although here καίι may be rendered also (I also will come in, etc.), declaring that, if the first thing (expressed in the protasis) be done, the second (expressed in the apodosis) will be done also. g. as in class. Grk., it begins a question thrown out with a certain impassioned abruptness and containing an urgent rejoinder to another’s speech (cf. W. § 53, 3 a.; Matthiae § 620, 1 d.; Kühner § 521, 3 ii. p. 791 sq.): καὶ τίς δύναται σωθῆναι; Mk. x. 26; καὶ τίς ἐστί μου πλησίον; Lk. x. 29; καὶ τίς ἐστιν κτλ. Jn. ix. 36 [G T Tr WH]; add, Jn. xiv. 22 [G T]. Peculiar is 2 Co. ii. 2: εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, καὶ τίς... ἐμοῦ (a swarm of exx. of this form of speech occur in Clem. homil. 2, 43, e. g. εἰ ὁ θεὸς ψεύδεται, καὶ τίς ἀληθεύει;), where the writer after the conditional protasis, interrupting himself as it were, utters the substance of the negative apodosis in a new question, where we render who then is he that etc., for then there is no one who etc. h. it introduces parentheses [cf. W. § 62, 1]: καὶ ἐκωλύθην ἄχρι τοῦ δεῦρο, Ro. i. 13 (Dem. Lept. p. 488, 9; so the Lat. et, e. g. praeda — et aliquantum ejus fuit — militi concessa, Liv. 27, 1); cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. i. p. 35 sq. 3. It annexes epexegetically both words and sentences (καί epexegetical or ‘explicative’), so that it is equiv. to and indeed, namely, [W. § 53, 3 c.; of. § 66, 7 fin.]: χάριν καὶ ἀποστολήν, Ro. i. 5, where cf. Fritzsche; περὶ ἐλπίδος καὶ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Acts xxiii. 6; πολλὰ... κ. ἕτερα, Lk. iii. 18; πολλὰ... καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα, Jn. xx.
마태복음 1장 4절
마태복음 1장 4절 KJY : And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; NASB : Ram was the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, and Nahshon the father of Salmon. ESV : and Ram the father of Amminadab, and Amminadab the father of Nahshon, and Nahshon the father of Salmon, NIV : Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon the father of Salmon, 개역개정 : 람은 아미나답을 낳고 아미나답은 나손을 낳고 나손은 살몬을 낳고 개역한글 : 람은 아미나답을 낳고 아미나답은 나손을 낳고 나손은 살몬을 낳고 공동번역 : 람은 암미나답을, 암미나답은 나흐손을, 나흐손은 살몬을 낳았고, 표준새번역 : 람은 아미나답을 낳고, 아미나답은 나손을 낳고, 나손은 살몬을 낳고, 쉬운성경 : 람은 아미나답을 낳고, 아미나답은 나손을 낳았습니다. 나손은 살몬을 낳았습니다. 우리말 성경 : 람은 아미나답을 낳고 아미나답은 나손을 낳고 나손은 살몬을 낳고 Greek : Ἀ.ρὰμ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἀ.μι.να.δάβ, Ἀ.μι.να.δὰβ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Να.ασ.σών, Να.ασ.σὼν δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Σαλ.μών, - Ἀράμ (Aram, 689), Aram [or Ram], indecl. prop. name of one of the male ancestors of Christ: Mt. i. 3 sq.; Lk. iii. 33 [not Τ WH Tr mrg.; see Ἀδμείν and Ἀρνεί].* - δέ (de, 1161) (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96; WH. App. p. 146; W. § 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opp. to a preceding statement: ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε... ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε, Mt. vi. 14 sq.; ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμὸς κτλ. Mt. vi. 23; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, Mk. ii. 20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of, — either with strong emphasis: ἐγὼ δέ, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Co. i. 23; 2 Co. x. 13; σὺ δέ, Mt. vi. 6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mk. viii. 29; οἰ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Mt. viii. 12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες... ὁ δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρ. Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58; πᾶς ὁ λαὸς... οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι, Lk. vii. 29 sq.; ὁ δὲ πνευματικός, 1 Co. ii. 15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, ὁ δέ, αὐτὸς δέ: Mk. i. 45; v. 34; vi. 37; vii. 6; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52; xv. 23 sqq.; Lk. iv. 40, 43; v. 16; vi. 8; viii. 10, 54; xv. 29; οἱ δέ, Mt. ii. 5; Mk. iii. 4; viii. 28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a prop. name, as ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς: Mt. viii. 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; ix. 12 [R G Tr br.], 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; xiii. 57; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.]; ἀποκρ. δὲ (ὁ) Σίμων, Lk. vii. 43 R G L br.; ἡ δὲ Μαρία, Lk. ii. 19, etc. 2. μὲν... δέ, see μέν. 3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (Germ. wohl aber): Mt. vi. 19 sq. (μὴ θησαυρίζετε... θησαυρίζετε δέ); x. 5 sq.; Acts xii. 9, 14; Ro. iii. 4; iv. 5; 1 Co. i. 10; vii. 37; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec.]; Eph. iv. 14 sq.; Heb. ii. 5 sq.; iv. 13, 15; ix. 12; x. 26 sq.; xii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 12 (οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς ὑμῖν [Rec. ἡμ.] δέ); Jas. i. 13 sq.; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boast of and strive after, but δικαιοσ. διὰ πίστεως); Ro. ix. 30; 1 Co. ii. 6 (σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτον); Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Phil. ii. 8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 361 sq.; L. Dindorf in Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928; [cf. W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Mt. i. 18; ii. 19; x. 21; Lk. xii. 13; xiii. 1; Jn. vii. 14, 37; Acts vi. 1; Ro. viii. 28; 1 Co. vii. 1; viii. 1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: Jn. iii. 19; vi. 39; 1 Co. i. 12; vii. 6, 29; Eph. v. 32, etc.; — esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mk. v. 13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L br.); xv. 25; xvi. 8 [R G]; Jn. vi. 10; ix. 14; xii. 3; τοῦτο δὲ γέγονε, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the Mss. (of prof. writ. also) with γάρ; cf. Winer on Gal. i. 11; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2; also his Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196; [W. 452 (421); B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. W. 443 (412)]: Mt. iii. 4; Lk. iv. 1; Ro. v. 8; 2 Co. ii. 12; v. 8; x. 2; Eph. ii. 4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts xi. 17 R G (1 Macc. xiv. 29, 2 Macc. i. 34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Col. i. 22 (21); cf. Matthiae ii. 1470; Kühner ii. 818; [Jelf § 770]; Klotz u. s. p. 370 sq.; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. καὶ... δέ, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Mt. x. 18; xvi. 18; Lk. ii. 35 [WH txt. om. L Tr br. δέ]; Jn. vi. 51; xv. 27; Acts iii. 24; xxii. 29; Ro. xi. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 12; 1 Jn. i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. C45 sq.; B. 364 (312); [also W. 443 (413); Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. καὶ ἐὰν δέ yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 11; xviii. 25; Mk. iv. 34; Lk. x. 31; Acts xvii. 6; xxviii. 6; Gal. iii. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Mt. x. 18; Jn. vi. 51; viii. 16 sq.; 1 Jn. i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 L T Tr WH]. - γεννάω (gennaō, 1080), -ῶ; fut. γεννήσω; 1 aor. ἐγέννησα; pf. γεγέννηκα; [Pass., pres. γεννάομαι, -ῶμαι]; pf. γεγέννημαι; 1 aor. ἐγεννήθην; (fr. γέννα, poetic for γένος); in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down; in Sept. for יָלַד; to beget; 1. properly: of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16; Acts vii. 8, 29; foll. by ἐκ with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57; xxiii. 29; Jn. xvi. 21; εἰς δουλείαν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lcian. de sacrif. 6; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; al.; Sept. Is. lxvi. 9; 4 Macc. x. 2, etc.). Pass. to be begotten: τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθέν that which is begotten in her womb, Mt. i. 20; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 (250); B. 203 (176)]; xix. 12; xxvi. 24; Mk. xiv. 21; Lk. i. 35; Jn. iii. 4; [Acts vii. 20]; Ro. ix. 11; Heb. xi. 23; with the addition εἰς τὸν κόσμον, Jn. xvi. 21; foll. by ἐν with dat. of place, Acts xxii. 3; ἀπό τινος, to spring from one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. ἐγενήθ. see Tdf. ad loc.]; εκ τινος to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16; ἐκ πορνείας, Jn. viii. 41; ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός, Jn. i. 13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ὅλος, Jn. ix. 34 (see ἁμαρτία, 2 a.); εἴς τι, to be born for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adj.: τυφλὸς γεγέννημαι, Jn. ix. 2, 19 sq. 32; Ῥωμαῖος to be supplied, Acts xxii. 28; τῇ διαλέκτω, ἐν ῇ ἐγεννήθημεν, Acts ii. 8; γεννηθεὶς κατὰ σάρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατὰ πνεῦμα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite: μάχας, 2 Tim. ii. 23 (βλάβην, λύπην, etc. in Grk. writ.). b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ὑμάς ἐγέννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 “If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him”; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, it is used of God making Christ his son; α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ), viz. by the resurrection: Acts xiii. 33. β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but cf. the Comm. on the pass. that follow]: Heb. i. 5; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Ep. of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absol.: 1 Jn. v. 1; mostly in pass., ἐκ θεοῦ or ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν, γεγέννηται, γεγεννημένος, etc.: Jn. i. 13; 1 Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.st γεγένηται]; iii. 9; iv. 7; v. 1, 4, 18; also ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], 8; ἐξ ὕδατος και πνεύματος (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff’s Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and reff. s. v. βάπτισμα, 3]), Jn. iii. 5; ἄνωθεν γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see ἄνωθεν, c.) equiv. to τέκνον θεοῦ γίνεσθαι, i. 12. [Comp.: ἀνα-γεννάω.]* - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, xvii. 17; ἡ κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος, Jn. vii. 6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῥήμασιν, Jn. v. 47; ἡ ἐμη διδαχή, vii. 16; τὴν σὴν λαλιάν, iv. 42), yet this is always done by the other Ν. Τ. writ., Mt. xviii. 20; Mk. viii. 38; Lk. ix. 26; Acts xxiv. 6 [Rec]; xxvi. 5; Ro. iii. 7, etc. c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive, — as τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον, Gal. vi. 5; ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xii. 35; τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν, Jn. vii. 24; ἡ ἀγαθὴ μέρις, Lk. x. 42; τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Lk. xii. 10; Acts i. 8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, Jn. xvii. 3, and many other exx.; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, Mk. iii. 29; Jn. xiv. 26; Acts i. 16; Heb. iii. 7; ix. 8; x. 15; ἡ ζωὴ ἡ αἰώνιος, 1 Jn. i. 2; ii. 25; ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, Jn. x. 11; τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν, Acts xii. 10, and other exx.; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts [xiv. 10 R G]; xxvi. 24; 1 Co. xi. 5, [cf. B. § 125, 5; W. § 20, 1 c.]. As to the adjectives of quantity, ὅλος, πᾶς, πολύς, see each in its own place. d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις, Rο. ix. 11; ἡ παρ᾿ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Ro. xi. 27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Co. i. 18; ἡ εἰς Χριστὸν πίστις, Col. ii. 5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, 1 Th. i. 8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, 2 Co. viii. 4; see many other exx. of each usage in W. 131 (124) sqq.; [B. 91 (80) sqq.]. e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows [W. § 18, 4; B. § 127, 29-31]; as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, Jn. ix. 24 [οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρ. L Tr mrg. WH]; Acts vi. 13; xxii. 26; ὁ λαὸς οὗτος, Mt. xv. 8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Lk. xv. 30; plur. Lk. xxiv. 17, and numberless other exx.; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Lk. xiv. 30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mk. vii. 6 [ὁ λ. οὗτ. L WH mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ νἱός μου, Lk. xv. 24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Lk. xviii. 11 [ὁ τελ. οὗτ. L mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ λόγος, Jn. vii. 36 [ὁ λόγ. οὗτ. L T Tr WH], and many other exx. on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτὸς ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III. 3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives [cf. W. §34, 2; B. § 128, 1]; as, τὸ ἀγαθόν, τὸ καλόν (which see each in its place); τὸ ἔλαττον, Heb. vii. 7; with a gen. added, τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ, Ro. i. 19; τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Ro. viii. 3; τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ, I Co. i. 25; αὐτῆς, Heb. vii. 18; τὰ ἀόρατα τ. θεοῦ, Ro. i. 20; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Co. iv. 2, etc. 4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Ro. v. 15, 17, the (that) one. So also oἱ δύο (our the twain), Mt. xix. 5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Lk. xvii. 17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καὶ) ὀκτώ, Lk. xiii. 4. 5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives [W. §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; B. §§ 129, 1 b.; 144. 9]; as, ὁ πειράζων, Mt. iv. 3; 1 Th. iii. 5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mk. vi. 14 (for which Mt. xiv. 2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Mt. xiii. 3; Lk. viii. 5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Heb. xi. 28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Lk. vii. 14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Mt. viii. 33; Mk. v. 14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Mt. xiv. 21; τὸ ὀφειλόμενον, Mt. xviii. 30, 34; τὰ ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2). b. the ptcp. with the article must be resolved into he who [and a fin. verb; cf. B. § 144, 9]: Mt. x. 40; Lk. vi. 29; xi. 23; Jn. xv. 23; 2 Co. i. 21; Phil. ii. 13, and very often, πᾶς ὁ foll. by a ptcp. [W. 111 (106)], Mt. v. 22; vii. 26; Lk. vi. 30 [T WH om. L Tr mrg. br. art.]; xi. 10; Ro. ii. 1; 1 Co. xvi. 16; Gal. iii. 13, etc.; μακάριος ὁ w. a ptcp., Mt. v. 4 (5), 6, 10, etc.; οὐαὶ ὑμῖν οἱ w. a ptcp., Lk. vi. 25; the neut. τό with a ptcp. must be resolved into that which [with a fin. verb], τὸ γεννώμενον, Lk. i. 35; τὸ γεγεννημένον, Jn. iii. 6. c. the article with ptcp. is placed in apposition: Mk. iii. 22; Acts xvii. 24; Eph. iii. 20; iv. 22, 24; 2 Tim. i. 14; 1 Pet. i. 21, etc. 6. The neut. τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. B. 261 (225) sqq. [cf. W. § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.]); as, τὸ καθίσαι, Mt. xx. 23; Mk. x. 40; τὸ θέλειν, Ro. vii. 18; 2 Co. viii. 10; τὸ ποιῆσαι, τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Co. viii. 11, and other exx.; τοῦτο κρίνατε · τὸ μὴ τιθέναι κτλ. Ro. xiv. 13. On the infin. w. the art. depending on a preposition (ἀντὶ τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each prep. in its place. b. Much more frequent in the Ν. Τ. than in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ., esp. in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the gen. τοῦ w. an inf. (and in the Sept. far more freq. than in the Ν. Τ.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his Com. on Mt. p. 843 sqq.; W. § 44, 4; B. 266 (228) sqq. The examples fall under the foll. classes: τοῦ with an inf. is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Co. xvi. 4; ἔλαχε, Lk. i. 9 (1 S. xiv. 47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Co. i. 8. β. for the simple expletive [i. e. “complementary”] or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infin., which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase, (where in Germ. zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Co. viii. 11; βραδεῖς, Lk. xxiv. 25; ἐλπίς, Acts xxvii. 20; 1 Co. ix. 10 [not Rec]; ἐζήτει εῦκαιρίαν, Lk. xxii. 6 [not Lmrg.]; ὁ καιρὸς (sc. ἐστί) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Pet. iv. 17 (καιρὸν ἔχειν w. the simple inf. Heb. xi. 15); διδόναι τὴν ἐζουσίαν, Lk. x. 19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple inf., Jn. xix. 10; 1 Co. ix. 4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν (equiv. to ὀφείλομεν), Ro. viii. 12 (with inf. alone, Gal. v. 3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts xxiii. 15 (1 Macc. iii. 58; v. 39; xiii. 37; with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Heb. v. 12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, that they should not see... that they should not hear [cf. B. 267 (230)], Ro. xi. 8 (ἔχειν ὦτα elsewh. always with a simple inf.; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered [cf. B. 1. c.], Lk. i. 57; ἐπλήσθ. ἡμέραι... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him [cf. B. 1. c], Lk. ii. 21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Lk. xvii. 1 [so B. § 140, 15; (W. 328 (308) otherwise)]; quite unusually after ἐγένετο [cf. B. § 140, 16 δ.; W. 1. c], Acts x. 25 [Rec. om. art.]. γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη [-μης Τ Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. α.)], Acts xx. 3; τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Lk. ix. 51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts xxiii. 20 (with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 5); πρασεύχεσθαι, Jas. v. 17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts xxi. 12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Lk. iv. 10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts xv. 20 (with inf. alone, xxi. 25 [R G T, but L Tr txt. WH here ἀποστέλ.; Β. 270 (232)]); κατανεύειν, Lk. v. 7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing, (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well- known pleonasm with μή before the inf. [see μή, I. 4 a.; B. § 148, 13; W. 325 (305)]; thus, after κατέχω τινά, Lk. iv. 42; κρατοῦμαι, Lk. xxiv. 16; κωλύω, Acts x. 47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts xx. 20, 27; παύω, 1 Pet. iii. 10; καταπαύω, Acts xiv. 18; without μή before the inf. after ἐγκόπτομαι, Ro. xv. 22. ε. τοῦ with an inf. is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Lk. xxi. 22; Acts ix. 15; xiii. 47; Phil. iii. 21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Ro. i. 24 [cf. B. § 140, 14]; W. 325 (305) sq. ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that [W. § 44, 4 b.; B. § 140,17]; esp. after verbs implying motion: Mt. ii. 13; iii. 13; xiii. 3, xxiv. 45; Mk. iv. 3 (where L Τ WH om. Tr br. τοῦ); Lk. i. 77, 79; ii. 24, 27; v. 1 [R G L txt. Tr mrg.]; viii. 5; xii. 42 (here L om. Tr br. τοῦ); xxii. 31; xxiv. 29; Acts iii. 2; xx. 30; xxvi. 18; Ro. vi. 6; xi. 10; Gal. iii. 10; Phil. iii. 10; Heb. x. 7, 9; xi. 5. η. used of result, so that: Acts vii. 19; Ro. vii. 3; after ποιῶ, to cause that, make to, Acts iii. 12; [cf. W. 326 (306); B. § 140, 16 δ.]. 7. The article with adverbs [B. § 125, 10 sq.; W. § 18, 3], a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τὸ πέραν, the region beyond; τὰ ἄνω, τὰ κάτω, τὸ νῦν, τὰ ἔμπροσθεν, τὰ ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places. b. is used when they stand adjectively, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words. c. the neut. τό is used in the acc. absol., esp. in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τὸ πάλιν, 2 Co. xiii. 2; τὰ νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τὸ λοιπόν, τὸ πρότερον (Jn. vi. 62; Gal. iv. 13); τὸ πρῶτον (Jn. x. 40; xii. 16; xix. 39); τὸ πλεῖστον (1 Co. xiv. 27); see these words themselves. 8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought [cf. B. § 125, 9; W. § 18, 3]; thus, οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας, ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts xvii. 13; Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6; ὁ ἔν τινι, Mt. vi. 9; Ro. viii. 1; neut. τὰ πρός, Mk. ii. 2; οἱ ἔκ τινος, Ro. ii. 8; iv. 14, 16; Phil. iv. 22 etc.; οἱ παρά τινος, Mk. iii. 21 (see παρά, I. e.). τὰ περί τινος, Lk. xxiv. 19; Acts xxiv. 10; Phil. i. 27; [add, τὰ (Τ Tr WH τὸ) περὶ ἐμοῦ, Lk. xxii. 37], etc. (see περί, I. b. β.); τὰ. περί τινα, Phil. ii. 23 [see περί, II. b.]; οἱ μετά τινος, those with one, his companions, Mt. xii. 3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other exx. which are given under the several prepositions, the neut. τό in the acc. absol. in adverbial expression!s [cf. W. 230 (216); B. §§ 125, 12; 131, 9]: τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Lk. xi. 3; xix. 47; Acts xvii. 11 [R G WH br.]; τὸ καθόλου, at all, Acts iv. 18 [L Τ WH om. τό]; besides, in τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, as respects human origin, Ro. ix. 5 [on the force of the art. here see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. etc. for 1883, p. 108]; τὰ κατ’ ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Col. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 21; τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Ro. xii. 18; τὸ ἐφ’ ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Ro. xvi. 19 R G; τὰ πρὸς (τὸν) θεόν, acc. absol., as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Ro. xv. 17; Heb. ii. 17; v. 1, (ἱερεῖ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεούς, στρατηγῷ δὲ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, Xen. resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. iii. p. 262 sq.); τὸ ἐκ μέρους sc. ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Co. xiii. 10. 9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates kinship, affinity, or some hind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing [cf. W. § 30, 3; B. § 125, 7]; a. the masc. and the fem. article: Ἰάκωβοw δ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίον, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Mt. x. 2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mk. xvi. 1 [Τ om. Tr br. τοῦ]; Lk. xxiv. 10 [L Τ Tr WH]; Ἐμμὸρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts vii. 16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Οὐρίου, the wife, Mt. i. 6; oἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Co. i. 11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Ro. xvi. 10 sq.; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ [A. V. they that are Christ's], 1 Co. xv. 23 G L Τ Tr WH; Gal. v. 24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mk. ii. 18a Rec, 18b R G L; Καισαρεία ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mk. viii. 27. b. τό and τά τινος: as τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opp. to τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Mt. xvi. 23; Mk. viii. 33; in the same sense τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, opp. to τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Co. vii. 32—34; τὰ τῆς σαρκός, τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, Ro. viii. 5; τὰ ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Co. xii. 14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τινος, 1 Co. x. 24; xiii. 5; Phil. ii. 21; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Ro. xiv. 19; τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Co. xi. 30; τὰ Καίσαρος, τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, due to Cæsar, due to God, Mt. xxii. 21; Mk. xii. 17; Lk. xx. 25; τὰ τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Co. xiii. 11; τὰ τινος, the house of one (τὰ Λύκωνος, Theocr. 2, 76; [εἰς τὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosth. § 12 p. 195]; cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. xiii. 10; [Chrysost. Hom. Iii. (on Gen. xxvi. 16), vol. iv. pt. ii. col. 458 ed. Migne; Gen. xli. 51; Esth. vii. 9, (Hebr. בַּיִת); Job xviii. 19 (Hebr. מָגוּר)]); with the name of a deity, the temple (τὰ τοῦ Διός, Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 18, 2; also τὸ τοῦ Διός, Lycurg. adv. Leocr. p. 231 [(orat. Att. p. 167, 15)]), Lk. ii. 49 (see other exx. in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100). τὰ τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Ro. ii. 14; τὸ τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22; τὰ τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Mt. viii. 33; τὸ τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Mt. xxi. 21. 10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception [B. § 125, 13; W. 109 (103 sq.)]: εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: “If thou canst believe”, Mk. ix. 23 [but L Τ Tr WH τό Εἰ δύνῃ “If thou canst I”]; cf. Bleek ad loc.; [Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.]. before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, “Thou shalt not kill”, Mt. xix. 18; add, Lk. xxii. 37 (where Lchm. ὅτι for τό); Ro. xiii. 9; [1 Co. iv. 6 L Τ Tr WH]; Gal. v. 14. before indir. questions: τὸ τὶς etc., τὸ τί etc., τὸ πῶς etc., Lk. i. 62; ix. 46; xix. 48; xxii. 2, 4, 23 sq.; Acts iv. 21; xxii. 30; Ro. viii. 26; 1 Th. iv. 1; cf. Matthiae § 280; Krüger § 50, 6, 10; Passow ii. p. 395b; [L. and S. s. v. Β. I. 3 sq.]. b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement [reff. as above]: τὸ Ἄγαρ, the name Ἄγαρ, Gal. iv. 25 [T L txt. WH mrg. om. Tr br. Ἄγαρ]; τὸ ‘ἀνέβη’, this word ἀνέβη, Eph. iv. 9, [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.]; τὸ ‘ἔτι ἅπαξ’, Heb. xii. 27; cf. Matthiae ii. p. 731 sq. 11. We find the unusual expression! ἡ οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλίψις [W. 179 (169)]), misery, calamity, [A. V. the Woe], in Rev. ix. 12; xi. 14. III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the Ν. Τ. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (§ 19) and Alex. Buttmann (§ 124, 8) [cf. also Green ch. ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (ed. Rose) pp. 41 sqq., 94 sq.; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Grk. Text of the Ν. Τ., 3d ed. 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819], and only add the foll. remarks: 1. More or less frequently the art. is wanting before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the art. is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἄγιον, ζωὴ αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead [see νεκρός, 1 b. p. 423b]); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law [see νόμος, 2 p. 428a]), κύριος, πατήρ, νἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc. 2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place. or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φνλακήν, ἐν φυλακῇ, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐν πίστεως, κατὰ σάρκα, ἐπ’ἐλπίδα, παρ’ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ’ ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ’ ἀγροῦ, ἐν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρώδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples. ὅ (ho), τε, ἥ, τε, τό, τε, see τέ 2 a. - Ἀμιναδάβ (Aminadab, 284), ὁ, עַמִּינָדָב (servant of the prince, [al. my people are noble; but cf. B. D. s. v.]), [A. V. Aminadab], the prop. name of one of the ancestors of Christ (1 Chr. ii. 10 [A. V. Amminadab]): Mt. i. 4; Lk. iii. 33 [not WH. See B. D. s. v.].* - Ναασσών (Naassōn, 3476), (נַחְשׁוֹן [i. e. “diviner”, “enchanter”]), ὁ, indecl., Naasson [or Naashon, or (best) Nahshon], a man mentioned in (Ex. vi. 23; Num. i. 7; Ruth iv. 20) Mt. i. 4 and Lk. iii. 32.* - Σαλμών (Salmōn, 4533), (שַׁלְמוֹן, Ruth iv. 21), ὁ, indecl., Salmon, the name of a man: Mt. i. 4 sq.; Lk. iii. 32 [here Τ WH Tr mrg. Σαλά].*
마태복음 1장 5절
마태복음 1장 5절 KJY : And Salmon begat Boaz of Rahab; and Boaz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; NASB : Salmon was the father of Boaz by Rahab, Boaz was the father of Obey by Ruth, and Obed the father of Jesse. ESV : and Salmon the father of Boaz by Rahab, and Boaz the father of Obed by Ruth, and Obed the father of Jesse, NIV : Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab, Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, Obed the father of Jesse, 개역개정 : 살몬은 라합에게서 보아스를 낳고 보아스는 룻에게서 오벳을 낳고 오벳은 이새를 낳고 개역한글 : 살몬은 라합에게서 보아스를 낳고 보아스는 룻에게서 오벳을 낳고 오벳은 이새를 낳고 공동번역 : 살몬은 라합에게서 보아즈를 낳았으며 보아즈는 룻에게서 오벳을 낳았고 오벳은 이새를, 표준새번역 : 살몬은 라합에게서 보아스를 낳고, 보아스는 룻에게서 오벳을 낳고, 오벳은 이새를 낳고, 쉬운성경 : 살몬은 보아스를 낳았는데, 보아스의 어머니는 라합입니다. 보아스는 오벳을 낳았는데 오벳의 어머니는 룻입니다. 오벳은 이새를 낳았습니다. 우리말 성경 : 살몬은 라합에게서 보아스를 낳고 보아스는 룻에게서 오벳을 낳고 오벳은 이새를 낳고 Greek : Σαλ.μὼν δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Βό.ες ἐκ τῆς Ῥα.χάβ, Βό.ες δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἰ.ω.βὴδ ἐκ τῆς Ῥούθ, Ἰ.ω.βὴδ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἰ.εσ.σαί, - Σαλμών (Salmōn, 4533), (שַׁלְמוֹן, Ruth iv. 21), ὁ, indecl., Salmon, the name of a man: Mt. i. 4 sq.; Lk. iii. 32 [here Τ WH Tr mrg. Σαλά].* - δέ (de, 1161) (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96; WH. App. p. 146; W. § 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opp. to a preceding statement: ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε... ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε, Mt. vi. 14 sq.; ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμὸς κτλ. Mt. vi. 23; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, Mk. ii. 20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of, — either with strong emphasis: ἐγὼ δέ, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Co. i. 23; 2 Co. x. 13; σὺ δέ, Mt. vi. 6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mk. viii. 29; οἰ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Mt. viii. 12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες... ὁ δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρ. Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58; πᾶς ὁ λαὸς... οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι, Lk. vii. 29 sq.; ὁ δὲ πνευματικός, 1 Co. ii. 15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, ὁ δέ, αὐτὸς δέ: Mk. i. 45; v. 34; vi. 37; vii. 6; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52; xv. 23 sqq.; Lk. iv. 40, 43; v. 16; vi. 8; viii. 10, 54; xv. 29; οἱ δέ, Mt. ii. 5; Mk. iii. 4; viii. 28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a prop. name, as ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς: Mt. viii. 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; ix. 12 [R G Tr br.], 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; xiii. 57; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.]; ἀποκρ. δὲ (ὁ) Σίμων, Lk. vii. 43 R G L br.; ἡ δὲ Μαρία, Lk. ii. 19, etc. 2. μὲν... δέ, see μέν. 3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (Germ. wohl aber): Mt. vi. 19 sq. (μὴ θησαυρίζετε... θησαυρίζετε δέ); x. 5 sq.; Acts xii. 9, 14; Ro. iii. 4; iv. 5; 1 Co. i. 10; vii. 37; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec.]; Eph. iv. 14 sq.; Heb. ii. 5 sq.; iv. 13, 15; ix. 12; x. 26 sq.; xii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 12 (οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς ὑμῖν [Rec. ἡμ.] δέ); Jas. i. 13 sq.; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boast of and strive after, but δικαιοσ. διὰ πίστεως); Ro. ix. 30; 1 Co. ii. 6 (σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτον); Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Phil. ii. 8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 361 sq.; L. Dindorf in Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928; [cf. W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Mt. i. 18; ii. 19; x. 21; Lk. xii. 13; xiii. 1; Jn. vii. 14, 37; Acts vi. 1; Ro. viii. 28; 1 Co. vii. 1; viii. 1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: Jn. iii. 19; vi. 39; 1 Co. i. 12; vii. 6, 29; Eph. v. 32, etc.; — esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mk. v. 13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L br.); xv. 25; xvi. 8 [R G]; Jn. vi. 10; ix. 14; xii. 3; τοῦτο δὲ γέγονε, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the Mss. (of prof. writ. also) with γάρ; cf. Winer on Gal. i. 11; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2; also his Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196; [W. 452 (421); B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. W. 443 (412)]: Mt. iii. 4; Lk. iv. 1; Ro. v. 8; 2 Co. ii. 12; v. 8; x. 2; Eph. ii. 4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts xi. 17 R G (1 Macc. xiv. 29, 2 Macc. i. 34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Col. i. 22 (21); cf. Matthiae ii. 1470; Kühner ii. 818; [Jelf § 770]; Klotz u. s. p. 370 sq.; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. καὶ... δέ, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Mt. x. 18; xvi. 18; Lk. ii. 35 [WH txt. om. L Tr br. δέ]; Jn. vi. 51; xv. 27; Acts iii. 24; xxii. 29; Ro. xi. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 12; 1 Jn. i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. C45 sq.; B. 364 (312); [also W. 443 (413); Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. καὶ ἐὰν δέ yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 11; xviii. 25; Mk. iv. 34; Lk. x. 31; Acts xvii. 6; xxviii. 6; Gal. iii. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Mt. x. 18; Jn. vi. 51; viii. 16 sq.; 1 Jn. i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 L T Tr WH]. - γεννάω (gennaō, 1080), -ῶ; fut. γεννήσω; 1 aor. ἐγέννησα; pf. γεγέννηκα; [Pass., pres. γεννάομαι, -ῶμαι]; pf. γεγέννημαι; 1 aor. ἐγεννήθην; (fr. γέννα, poetic for γένος); in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down; in Sept. for יָלַד; to beget; 1. properly: of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16; Acts vii. 8, 29; foll. by ἐκ with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57; xxiii. 29; Jn. xvi. 21; εἰς δουλείαν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lcian. de sacrif. 6; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; al.; Sept. Is. lxvi. 9; 4 Macc. x. 2, etc.). Pass. to be begotten: τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθέν that which is begotten in her womb, Mt. i. 20; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 (250); B. 203 (176)]; xix. 12; xxvi. 24; Mk. xiv. 21; Lk. i. 35; Jn. iii. 4; [Acts vii. 20]; Ro. ix. 11; Heb. xi. 23; with the addition εἰς τὸν κόσμον, Jn. xvi. 21; foll. by ἐν with dat. of place, Acts xxii. 3; ἀπό τινος, to spring from one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. ἐγενήθ. see Tdf. ad loc.]; εκ τινος to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16; ἐκ πορνείας, Jn. viii. 41; ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός, Jn. i. 13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ὅλος, Jn. ix. 34 (see ἁμαρτία, 2 a.); εἴς τι, to be born for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adj.: τυφλὸς γεγέννημαι, Jn. ix. 2, 19 sq. 32; Ῥωμαῖος to be supplied, Acts xxii. 28; τῇ διαλέκτω, ἐν ῇ ἐγεννήθημεν, Acts ii. 8; γεννηθεὶς κατὰ σάρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατὰ πνεῦμα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite: μάχας, 2 Tim. ii. 23 (βλάβην, λύπην, etc. in Grk. writ.). b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ὑμάς ἐγέννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 “If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him”; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, it is used of God making Christ his son; α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ), viz. by the resurrection: Acts xiii. 33. β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but cf. the Comm. on the pass. that follow]: Heb. i. 5; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Ep. of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absol.: 1 Jn. v. 1; mostly in pass., ἐκ θεοῦ or ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν, γεγέννηται, γεγεννημένος, etc.: Jn. i. 13; 1 Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.st γεγένηται]; iii. 9; iv. 7; v. 1, 4, 18; also ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], 8; ἐξ ὕδατος και πνεύματος (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff’s Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and reff. s. v. βάπτισμα, 3]), Jn. iii. 5; ἄνωθεν γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see ἄνωθεν, c.) equiv. to τέκνον θεοῦ γίνεσθαι, i. 12. [Comp.: ἀνα-γεννάω.]* - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, xvii. 17; ἡ κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος, Jn. vii. 6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῥήμασιν, Jn. v. 47; ἡ ἐμη διδαχή, vii. 16; τὴν σὴν λαλιάν, iv. 42), yet this is always done by the other Ν. Τ. writ., Mt. xviii. 20; Mk. viii. 38; Lk. ix. 26; Acts xxiv. 6 [Rec]; xxvi. 5; Ro. iii. 7, etc. c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive, — as τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον, Gal. vi. 5; ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xii. 35; τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν, Jn. vii. 24; ἡ ἀγαθὴ μέρις, Lk. x. 42; τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Lk. xii. 10; Acts i. 8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, Jn. xvii. 3, and many other exx.; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, Mk. iii. 29; Jn. xiv. 26; Acts i. 16; Heb. iii. 7; ix. 8; x. 15; ἡ ζωὴ ἡ αἰώνιος, 1 Jn. i. 2; ii. 25; ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, Jn. x. 11; τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν, Acts xii. 10, and other exx.; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts [xiv. 10 R G]; xxvi. 24; 1 Co. xi. 5, [cf. B. § 125, 5; W. § 20, 1 c.]. As to the adjectives of quantity, ὅλος, πᾶς, πολύς, see each in its own place. d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις, Rο. ix. 11; ἡ παρ᾿ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Ro. xi. 27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Co. i. 18; ἡ εἰς Χριστὸν πίστις, Col. ii. 5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, 1 Th. i. 8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, 2 Co. viii. 4; see many other exx. of each usage in W. 131 (124) sqq.; [B. 91 (80) sqq.]. e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows [W. § 18, 4; B. § 127, 29-31]; as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, Jn. ix. 24 [οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρ. L Tr mrg. WH]; Acts vi. 13; xxii. 26; ὁ λαὸς οὗτος, Mt. xv. 8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Lk. xv. 30; plur. Lk. xxiv. 17, and numberless other exx.; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Lk. xiv. 30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mk. vii. 6 [ὁ λ. οὗτ. L WH mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ νἱός μου, Lk. xv. 24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Lk. xviii. 11 [ὁ τελ. οὗτ. L mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ λόγος, Jn. vii. 36 [ὁ λόγ. οὗτ. L T Tr WH], and many other exx. on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτὸς ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III. 3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives [cf. W. §34, 2; B. § 128, 1]; as, τὸ ἀγαθόν, τὸ καλόν (which see each in its place); τὸ ἔλαττον, Heb. vii. 7; with a gen. added, τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ, Ro. i. 19; τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Ro. viii. 3; τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ, I Co. i. 25; αὐτῆς, Heb. vii. 18; τὰ ἀόρατα τ. θεοῦ, Ro. i. 20; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Co. iv. 2, etc. 4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Ro. v. 15, 17, the (that) one. So also oἱ δύο (our the twain), Mt. xix. 5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Lk. xvii. 17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καὶ) ὀκτώ, Lk. xiii. 4. 5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives [W. §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; B. §§ 129, 1 b.; 144. 9]; as, ὁ πειράζων, Mt. iv. 3; 1 Th. iii. 5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mk. vi. 14 (for which Mt. xiv. 2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Mt. xiii. 3; Lk. viii. 5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Heb. xi. 28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Lk. vii. 14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Mt. viii. 33; Mk. v. 14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Mt. xiv. 21; τὸ ὀφειλόμενον, Mt. xviii. 30, 34; τὰ ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2). b. the ptcp. with the article must be resolved into he who [and a fin. verb; cf. B. § 144, 9]: Mt. x. 40; Lk. vi. 29; xi. 23; Jn. xv. 23; 2 Co. i. 21; Phil. ii. 13, and very often, πᾶς ὁ foll. by a ptcp. [W. 111 (106)], Mt. v. 22; vii. 26; Lk. vi. 30 [T WH om. L Tr mrg. br. art.]; xi. 10; Ro. ii. 1; 1 Co. xvi. 16; Gal. iii. 13, etc.; μακάριος ὁ w. a ptcp., Mt. v. 4 (5), 6, 10, etc.; οὐαὶ ὑμῖν οἱ w. a ptcp., Lk. vi. 25; the neut. τό with a ptcp. must be resolved into that which [with a fin. verb], τὸ γεννώμενον, Lk. i. 35; τὸ γεγεννημένον, Jn. iii. 6. c. the article with ptcp. is placed in apposition: Mk. iii. 22; Acts xvii. 24; Eph. iii. 20; iv. 22, 24; 2 Tim. i. 14; 1 Pet. i. 21, etc. 6. The neut. τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. B. 261 (225) sqq. [cf. W. § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.]); as, τὸ καθίσαι, Mt. xx. 23; Mk. x. 40; τὸ θέλειν, Ro. vii. 18; 2 Co. viii. 10; τὸ ποιῆσαι, τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Co. viii. 11, and other exx.; τοῦτο κρίνατε · τὸ μὴ τιθέναι κτλ. Ro. xiv. 13. On the infin. w. the art. depending on a preposition (ἀντὶ τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each prep. in its place. b. Much more frequent in the Ν. Τ. than in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ., esp. in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the gen. τοῦ w. an inf. (and in the Sept. far more freq. than in the Ν. Τ.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his Com. on Mt. p. 843 sqq.; W. § 44, 4; B. 266 (228) sqq. The examples fall under the foll. classes: τοῦ with an inf. is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Co. xvi. 4; ἔλαχε, Lk. i. 9 (1 S. xiv. 47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Co. i. 8. β. for the simple expletive [i. e. “complementary”] or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infin., which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase, (where in Germ. zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Co. viii. 11; βραδεῖς, Lk. xxiv. 25; ἐλπίς, Acts xxvii. 20; 1 Co. ix. 10 [not Rec]; ἐζήτει εῦκαιρίαν, Lk. xxii. 6 [not Lmrg.]; ὁ καιρὸς (sc. ἐστί) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Pet. iv. 17 (καιρὸν ἔχειν w. the simple inf. Heb. xi. 15); διδόναι τὴν ἐζουσίαν, Lk. x. 19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple inf., Jn. xix. 10; 1 Co. ix. 4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν (equiv. to ὀφείλομεν), Ro. viii. 12 (with inf. alone, Gal. v. 3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts xxiii. 15 (1 Macc. iii. 58; v. 39; xiii. 37; with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Heb. v. 12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, that they should not see... that they should not hear [cf. B. 267 (230)], Ro. xi. 8 (ἔχειν ὦτα elsewh. always with a simple inf.; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered [cf. B. 1. c.], Lk. i. 57; ἐπλήσθ. ἡμέραι... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him [cf. B. 1. c], Lk. ii. 21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Lk. xvii. 1 [so B. § 140, 15; (W. 328 (308) otherwise)]; quite unusually after ἐγένετο [cf. B. § 140, 16 δ.; W. 1. c], Acts x. 25 [Rec. om. art.]. γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη [-μης Τ Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. α.)], Acts xx. 3; τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Lk. ix. 51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts xxiii. 20 (with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 5); πρασεύχεσθαι, Jas. v. 17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts xxi. 12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Lk. iv. 10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts xv. 20 (with inf. alone, xxi. 25 [R G T, but L Tr txt. WH here ἀποστέλ.; Β. 270 (232)]); κατανεύειν, Lk. v. 7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing, (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well- known pleonasm with μή before the inf. [see μή, I. 4 a.; B. § 148, 13; W. 325 (305)]; thus, after κατέχω τινά, Lk. iv. 42; κρατοῦμαι, Lk. xxiv. 16; κωλύω, Acts x. 47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts xx. 20, 27; παύω, 1 Pet. iii. 10; καταπαύω, Acts xiv. 18; without μή before the inf. after ἐγκόπτομαι, Ro. xv. 22. ε. τοῦ with an inf. is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Lk. xxi. 22; Acts ix. 15; xiii. 47; Phil. iii. 21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Ro. i. 24 [cf. B. § 140, 14]; W. 325 (305) sq. ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that [W. § 44, 4 b.; B. § 140,17]; esp. after verbs implying motion: Mt. ii. 13; iii. 13; xiii. 3, xxiv. 45; Mk. iv. 3 (where L Τ WH om. Tr br. τοῦ); Lk. i. 77, 79; ii. 24, 27; v. 1 [R G L txt. Tr mrg.]; viii. 5; xii. 42 (here L om. Tr br. τοῦ); xxii. 31; xxiv. 29; Acts iii. 2; xx. 30; xxvi. 18; Ro. vi. 6; xi. 10; Gal. iii. 10; Phil. iii. 10; Heb. x. 7, 9; xi. 5. η. used of result, so that: Acts vii. 19; Ro. vii. 3; after ποιῶ, to cause that, make to, Acts iii. 12; [cf. W. 326 (306); B. § 140, 16 δ.]. 7. The article with adverbs [B. § 125, 10 sq.; W. § 18, 3], a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τὸ πέραν, the region beyond; τὰ ἄνω, τὰ κάτω, τὸ νῦν, τὰ ἔμπροσθεν, τὰ ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places. b. is used when they stand adjectively, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words. c. the neut. τό is used in the acc. absol., esp. in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τὸ πάλιν, 2 Co. xiii. 2; τὰ νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τὸ λοιπόν, τὸ πρότερον (Jn. vi. 62; Gal. iv. 13); τὸ πρῶτον (Jn. x. 40; xii. 16; xix. 39); τὸ πλεῖστον (1 Co. xiv. 27); see these words themselves. 8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought [cf. B. § 125, 9; W. § 18, 3]; thus, οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας, ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts xvii. 13; Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6; ὁ ἔν τινι, Mt. vi. 9; Ro. viii. 1; neut. τὰ πρός, Mk. ii. 2; οἱ ἔκ τινος, Ro. ii. 8; iv. 14, 16; Phil. iv. 22 etc.; οἱ παρά τινος, Mk. iii. 21 (see παρά, I. e.). τὰ περί τινος, Lk. xxiv. 19; Acts xxiv. 10; Phil. i. 27; [add, τὰ (Τ Tr WH τὸ) περὶ ἐμοῦ, Lk. xxii. 37], etc. (see περί, I. b. β.); τὰ. περί τινα, Phil. ii. 23 [see περί, II. b.]; οἱ μετά τινος, those with one, his companions, Mt. xii. 3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other exx. which are given under the several prepositions, the neut. τό in the acc. absol. in adverbial expression!s [cf. W. 230 (216); B. §§ 125, 12; 131, 9]: τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Lk. xi. 3; xix. 47; Acts xvii. 11 [R G WH br.]; τὸ καθόλου, at all, Acts iv. 18 [L Τ WH om. τό]; besides, in τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, as respects human origin, Ro. ix. 5 [on the force of the art. here see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. etc. for 1883, p. 108]; τὰ κατ’ ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Col. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 21; τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Ro. xii. 18; τὸ ἐφ’ ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Ro. xvi. 19 R G; τὰ πρὸς (τὸν) θεόν, acc. absol., as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Ro. xv. 17; Heb. ii. 17; v. 1, (ἱερεῖ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεούς, στρατηγῷ δὲ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, Xen. resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. iii. p. 262 sq.); τὸ ἐκ μέρους sc. ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Co. xiii. 10. 9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates kinship, affinity, or some hind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing [cf. W. § 30, 3; B. § 125, 7]; a. the masc. and the fem. article: Ἰάκωβοw δ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίον, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Mt. x. 2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mk. xvi. 1 [Τ om. Tr br. τοῦ]; Lk. xxiv. 10 [L Τ Tr WH]; Ἐμμὸρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts vii. 16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Οὐρίου, the wife, Mt. i. 6; oἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Co. i. 11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Ro. xvi. 10 sq.; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ [A. V. they that are Christ's], 1 Co. xv. 23 G L Τ Tr WH; Gal. v. 24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mk. ii. 18a Rec, 18b R G L; Καισαρεία ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mk. viii. 27. b. τό and τά τινος: as τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opp. to τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Mt. xvi. 23; Mk. viii. 33; in the same sense τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, opp. to τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Co. vii. 32—34; τὰ τῆς σαρκός, τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, Ro. viii. 5; τὰ ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Co. xii. 14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τινος, 1 Co. x. 24; xiii. 5; Phil. ii. 21; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Ro. xiv. 19; τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Co. xi. 30; τὰ Καίσαρος, τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, due to Cæsar, due to God, Mt. xxii. 21; Mk. xii. 17; Lk. xx. 25; τὰ τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Co. xiii. 11; τὰ τινος, the house of one (τὰ Λύκωνος, Theocr. 2, 76; [εἰς τὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosth. § 12 p. 195]; cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. xiii. 10; [Chrysost. Hom. Iii. (on Gen. xxvi. 16), vol. iv. pt. ii. col. 458 ed. Migne; Gen. xli. 51; Esth. vii. 9, (Hebr. בַּיִת); Job xviii. 19 (Hebr. מָגוּר)]); with the name of a deity, the temple (τὰ τοῦ Διός, Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 18, 2; also τὸ τοῦ Διός, Lycurg. adv. Leocr. p. 231 [(orat. Att. p. 167, 15)]), Lk. ii. 49 (see other exx. in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100). τὰ τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Ro. ii. 14; τὸ τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22; τὰ τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Mt. viii. 33; τὸ τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Mt. xxi. 21. 10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception [B. § 125, 13; W. 109 (103 sq.)]: εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: “If thou canst believe”, Mk. ix. 23 [but L Τ Tr WH τό Εἰ δύνῃ “If thou canst I”]; cf. Bleek ad loc.; [Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.]. before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, “Thou shalt not kill”, Mt. xix. 18; add, Lk. xxii. 37 (where Lchm. ὅτι for τό); Ro. xiii. 9; [1 Co. iv. 6 L Τ Tr WH]; Gal. v. 14. before indir. questions: τὸ τὶς etc., τὸ τί etc., τὸ πῶς etc., Lk. i. 62; ix. 46; xix. 48; xxii. 2, 4, 23 sq.; Acts iv. 21; xxii. 30; Ro. viii. 26; 1 Th. iv. 1; cf. Matthiae § 280; Krüger § 50, 6, 10; Passow ii. p. 395b; [L. and S. s. v. Β. I. 3 sq.]. b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement [reff. as above]: τὸ Ἄγαρ, the name Ἄγαρ, Gal. iv. 25 [T L txt. WH mrg. om. Tr br. Ἄγαρ]; τὸ ‘ἀνέβη’, this word ἀνέβη, Eph. iv. 9, [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.]; τὸ ‘ἔτι ἅπαξ’, Heb. xii. 27; cf. Matthiae ii. p. 731 sq. 11. We find the unusual expression! ἡ οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλίψις [W. 179 (169)]), misery, calamity, [A. V. the Woe], in Rev. ix. 12; xi. 14. III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the Ν. Τ. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (§ 19) and Alex. Buttmann (§ 124, 8) [cf. also Green ch. ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (ed. Rose) pp. 41 sqq., 94 sq.; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Grk. Text of the Ν. Τ., 3d ed. 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819], and only add the foll. remarks: 1. More or less frequently the art. is wanting before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the art. is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἄγιον, ζωὴ αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead [see νεκρός, 1 b. p. 423b]); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law [see νόμος, 2 p. 428a]), κύριος, πατήρ, νἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc. 2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place. or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φνλακήν, ἐν φυλακῇ, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐν πίστεως, κατὰ σάρκα, ἐπ’ἐλπίδα, παρ’ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ’ ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ’ ἀγροῦ, ἐν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρώδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples. ὅ (ho), τε, ἥ, τε, τό, τε, see τέ 2 a. - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σό
마태복음 1장 7절
마태복음 1장 7절 KJY : And Solomon begat Roboam; and roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa; NASB : Solomon was the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, and Abijah the father of Asa. ESV : and Solomon the father of Rehoboam, and Rehoboam the father of Abijah, and Abijah the father of Asaph, NIV : Solomon the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asa, 개역개정 : 솔로몬은 르호보암을 낳고 르호보암은 아비야를 낳고 아비야는 아사를 낳고 개역한글 : 솔로몬은 르호보암을 낳고 르호보암은 아비야를 낳고 아비야는 아사를 낳고 공동번역 : 솔로몬은 르호보암을, 르호보암은 아비야를, 아비야는 아삽을, 표준새번역 : 솔로몬은 르호보암을 낳고, 르호보암은 아비야를 낳고, 아비야는 아사를 낳고 쉬운성경 : 솔로몬은 르호보암을 낳고, 르호보암은 아비야를 낳았습니다. 아비야는 아사를 낳았습니다. 우리말 성경 : 솔로몬은 르호보암을 낳고 르호보암은 아비야를 낳고 아비야는 아사를 낳고 Greek : Σο.λο.μὼν δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ῥο.βο.άμ, Ῥο.βο.ὰμ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἀ.βι.ά, Ἀ.βι.ὰ δὲ ἐ.γέν.νη.σεν τὸν Ἀ.σάφ, - Σολομῶν (Solomōn, 4672) (so [Rst bez elz G L in Lk. xii. 27; R L Tr WH in Acts vii. 47 (cf. Tdf. on Mt. vi. 29)]) and Σολομών [so R G L T Tr WH in Mt. i. 7; vi. 29; Rscriv T Tr WH in Lk. xii. 27; G in Acts vii. 47; (Σαλωμών Tdf. in Acts vii. 47)], -ῶντος (so Rec. uniformly; [L Τ WH in Acts iii. 11; v. 12; L in Mt. i. 6 also]), and -ῶνος (so [G L Τ Tr WH in Mt. xii. 42; Lk. xi. 31; Jn. x. 23; G Τ Tr WH in Mt. i. 6; G Tr in Acts iii. 11; v. 12]; the forms -ών, -ῶνος, are undoubtedly to be preferred, cf. [Tdf. Proleg. pp. 104, 110; WH. App. p. 158]; W. 67 (65); B. 16 (14 sq.)), ὁ, (שִׁלמׁהׁ, i. e. “pacific”, Irenaeus, Germ. Friedrich, Eng. Frederick), Solomon, the son of David by Bathsheba the wife of Uriah; he succeeded his father, becoming the third king of Israel (b. c. 1015-975 [acc. to the commonly accepted chronology; but cf. the art. “Zeitrechnung” in Riehm's HWB. (esp. p. 1823 sq.)]), built the temple at Jerusalem, and was distinguished for his magnificence, splendor, and wisdom: Mt. i. 6 sq.; vi. 29; xii. 42; Lk. xi. 31; xii. 27; Jn. x. 23; Acts iii. 11; v. 12; vii. 47.* - δέ (de, 1161) (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96; WH. App. p. 146; W. § 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opp. to a preceding statement: ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε... ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε, Mt. vi. 14 sq.; ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμὸς κτλ. Mt. vi. 23; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, Mk. ii. 20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of, — either with strong emphasis: ἐγὼ δέ, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Co. i. 23; 2 Co. x. 13; σὺ δέ, Mt. vi. 6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mk. viii. 29; οἰ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Mt. viii. 12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες... ὁ δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρ. Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58; πᾶς ὁ λαὸς... οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι, Lk. vii. 29 sq.; ὁ δὲ πνευματικός, 1 Co. ii. 15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, ὁ δέ, αὐτὸς δέ: Mk. i. 45; v. 34; vi. 37; vii. 6; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52; xv. 23 sqq.; Lk. iv. 40, 43; v. 16; vi. 8; viii. 10, 54; xv. 29; οἱ δέ, Mt. ii. 5; Mk. iii. 4; viii. 28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a prop. name, as ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς: Mt. viii. 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; ix. 12 [R G Tr br.], 22 [Tdf. om. Ἰ.]; xiii. 57; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.]; ἀποκρ. δὲ (ὁ) Σίμων, Lk. vii. 43 R G L br.; ἡ δὲ Μαρία, Lk. ii. 19, etc. 2. μὲν... δέ, see μέν. 3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (Germ. wohl aber): Mt. vi. 19 sq. (μὴ θησαυρίζετε... θησαυρίζετε δέ); x. 5 sq.; Acts xii. 9, 14; Ro. iii. 4; iv. 5; 1 Co. i. 10; vii. 37; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec.]; Eph. iv. 14 sq.; Heb. ii. 5 sq.; iv. 13, 15; ix. 12; x. 26 sq.; xii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 12 (οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς ὑμῖν [Rec. ἡμ.] δέ); Jas. i. 13 sq.; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boast of and strive after, but δικαιοσ. διὰ πίστεως); Ro. ix. 30; 1 Co. ii. 6 (σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτον); Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Phil. ii. 8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2 p. 361 sq.; L. Dindorf in Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928; [cf. W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Mt. i. 18; ii. 19; x. 21; Lk. xii. 13; xiii. 1; Jn. vii. 14, 37; Acts vi. 1; Ro. viii. 28; 1 Co. vii. 1; viii. 1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: Jn. iii. 19; vi. 39; 1 Co. i. 12; vii. 6, 29; Eph. v. 32, etc.; — esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mk. v. 13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L br.); xv. 25; xvi. 8 [R G]; Jn. vi. 10; ix. 14; xii. 3; τοῦτο δὲ γέγονε, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the Mss. (of prof. writ. also) with γάρ; cf. Winer on Gal. i. 11; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2; also his Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196; [W. 452 (421); B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. W. 443 (412)]: Mt. iii. 4; Lk. iv. 1; Ro. v. 8; 2 Co. ii. 12; v. 8; x. 2; Eph. ii. 4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts xi. 17 R G (1 Macc. xiv. 29, 2 Macc. i. 34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Col. i. 22 (21); cf. Matthiae ii. 1470; Kühner ii. 818; [Jelf § 770]; Klotz u. s. p. 370 sq.; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. καὶ... δέ, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Mt. x. 18; xvi. 18; Lk. ii. 35 [WH txt. om. L Tr br. δέ]; Jn. vi. 51; xv. 27; Acts iii. 24; xxii. 29; Ro. xi. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 12; 1 Jn. i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. C45 sq.; B. 364 (312); [also W. 443 (413); Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. καὶ ἐὰν δέ yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 11; xviii. 25; Mk. iv. 34; Lk. x. 31; Acts xvii. 6; xxviii. 6; Gal. iii. 23; 2 Tim. iii. 8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Mt. x. 18; Jn. vi. 51; viii. 16 sq.; 1 Jn. i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 L T Tr WH]. - γεννάω (gennaō, 1080), -ῶ; fut. γεννήσω; 1 aor. ἐγέννησα; pf. γεγέννηκα; [Pass., pres. γεννάομαι, -ῶμαι]; pf. γεγέννημαι; 1 aor. ἐγεννήθην; (fr. γέννα, poetic for γένος); in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down; in Sept. for יָלַד; to beget; 1. properly: of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16; Acts vii. 8, 29; foll. by ἐκ with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57; xxiii. 29; Jn. xvi. 21; εἰς δουλείαν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lcian. de sacrif. 6; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; al.; Sept. Is. lxvi. 9; 4 Macc. x. 2, etc.). Pass. to be begotten: τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθέν that which is begotten in her womb, Mt. i. 20; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 (250); B. 203 (176)]; xix. 12; xxvi. 24; Mk. xiv. 21; Lk. i. 35; Jn. iii. 4; [Acts vii. 20]; Ro. ix. 11; Heb. xi. 23; with the addition εἰς τὸν κόσμον, Jn. xvi. 21; foll. by ἐν with dat. of place, Acts xxii. 3; ἀπό τινος, to spring from one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. ἐγενήθ. see Tdf. ad loc.]; εκ τινος to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16; ἐκ πορνείας, Jn. viii. 41; ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός, Jn. i. 13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ὅλος, Jn. ix. 34 (see ἁμαρτία, 2 a.); εἴς τι, to be born for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adj.: τυφλὸς γεγέννημαι, Jn. ix. 2, 19 sq. 32; Ῥωμαῖος to be supplied, Acts xxii. 28; τῇ διαλέκτω, ἐν ῇ ἐγεννήθημεν, Acts ii. 8; γεννηθεὶς κατὰ σάρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατὰ πνεῦμα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite: μάχας, 2 Tim. ii. 23 (βλάβην, λύπην, etc. in Grk. writ.). b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ὑμάς ἐγέννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 “If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him”; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, it is used of God making Christ his son; α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ), viz. by the resurrection: Acts xiii. 33. β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but cf. the Comm. on the pass. that follow]: Heb. i. 5; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Ep. of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absol.: 1 Jn. v. 1; mostly in pass., ἐκ θεοῦ or ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν, γεγέννηται, γεγεννημένος, etc.: Jn. i. 13; 1 Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.st γεγένηται]; iii. 9; iv. 7; v. 1, 4, 18; also ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], 8; ἐξ ὕδατος και πνεύματος (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff’s Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and reff. s. v. βάπτισμα, 3]), Jn. iii. 5; ἄνωθεν γεννᾶσθαι, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see ἄνωθεν, c.) equiv. to τέκνον θεοῦ γίνεσθαι, i. 12. [Comp.: ἀνα-γεννάω.]* - ὁ, ἡ, τό (ho, hē, to, 3588), originally τός, τή, τό, (as is evident from the forms τοί, ταί for οἱ, αἱ in Hom. and the Ionic writ.), corresponds to our definite article the (Germ, der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the Ν. Τ. I. As a Demonstrative Pronoun; Lat. hic, haec, hoc; Germ. der, die, das, emphatic; cf. W. § 17, 1; B. 101 (89) sq.; 1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν, quoted by Paul in Acts xvii. 28. 2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μὲν... ὁ δέ, that... this, the one... the other: Mt. xiii. 23 R G Tr [here the division is threefold]; Gal. iv. 23 [here L WH Tr mrg. br. μέν]; οἱ μὲν... οἱ δέ, Acts xxviii. 24; Phil. i. 16 sq.; οἱ μὲν... ὁ δέ, Heb. vii. 5 sq. 20 (21), 23 sq.; τοὺς μὲν... τοὺς δέ, Mk. xii. 5 R G; Eph. iv. 11; οἱ μὲν... ἄλλοι δὲ (Lchm. οἱ δὲ)... ἕτεροι δέ, Mt. xvi. 14 cf. Jn. vii. 12; τινές foll. by οἱ δέ, Acts xvii. 18; ὃς (see ὅς Ι.) μέν foll. by οἱ δέ, Ro. xiv. 2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Mt. xxvi. 67; xxviii. 17. 3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he, (Germ. er aber): Mt. ii. 14; iv. 4; xxi. 29 sq.; Mk. i. 45; xii. 15; Lk. viii. 21, 30, 48; xxii. 10, 34; Jn. ix. 38, and very often; plur., Mt. ii. 5, 9; iv. 20; Mk. xii. 14 [R G L mrg.], 16 [L br. οἱ δέ]; Lk. vii. 4; xx. 5, 12; xxii. 9, 38, 71; Acts iv. 21; xii. 15, and often; οἱ μὲν οὖν, in the Acts alone: i. 6; v. 41; xv. 3, 30; ὁ μὲν οὖν, xxiii. 18; xxviii. 5. II. As the Definite or Prepositive Article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article, — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the Germ. der, die, das, exx. of which use are not found in the Ν. Τ.), whose use in the Ν. Τ. is explained at length by W. §§ 18-20; B. 85 (74) sqq.; [Green p. 5 sqq.]. As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed 1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the art. thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ θεός, ὁ λόγος (Jn. i. 1 sq.), ὁ διάβολος, τὸ φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc. b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Mt. xi. 3; Lk. vii. 19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, Jn. i. 21; vii. 40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation; ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Co. x. 1 sq.; τοὺς ἀγγέλους, Jas. ii. 25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Co. xv. 8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Jn. iii. 10; cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τοὺς μάγους, Mt. ii. 7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Mt. ix. 17; οἱ δαίμονες, Mt. viii. 31 cf. 28; τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, Mt. xxi. 7 cf. 2, and countless other exx. The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τὰ βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place. Lk. xviii. 15; ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων, sc. which were there, Mt. xxi. 8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Mt. viii. 4; Mk. i. 44; Lk. v. 14; τὸ πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Mt. viii. 23 [R G T, cf. 18]; ix. 1 [R G]; xiii. 2 [R G]; τὸ ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) [but some commentators still regard τὸ ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινή, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country, (cf. Sept. Josh. xvii. 16; xx. 7; Gen. xix. 17, 19, etc.); cf. Bp. Lghtft. “Fresh Revision” etc. p. 111 sq.; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Mt. 7te Aufl.], Mt. v. 1; Mk. iii. 13; Lk. ix. 28; Jn. vi. 3, 15, (1 Macc. ix. 38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Mt. ix. 10, 28; xiii. 36; xvii. 25; ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, sc. that is in the house, Mt. v. 15; also ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Lk. ii. 7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Co. iv. 5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα, τὸ κράτος, 1 Pet. iv. 11; Rev. iv. 13, etc. c. The article prefixed to the Plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name, — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Mt. xxiv. 29; Mk. xiii. 25; αἱ ἀλώπεκες, Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματείς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι, people, the multitude, (Germ, die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Mt. xxiv. 28; τοῖς κυσίν, Mt. vii. 6. d. The article prefixed to the Singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xv. 11; ὁ ἐθνικὸς κ. τελώνης, Mt. xviii. 17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Lk. x. 7; 1 Tim. v. 18; ὁ μεσίτης, Gal. iii. 20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Gal. iv. 1; ὁ δίκαιος, Ro. i. 17; Heb. x. 88; τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of any one who claims to be an apostle, 2 Co. xii. 12, and other exx. e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses [cf. W. § 29, 2; B. § 129 a. 5]: χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδ. (prop. σὺ ὁ βασ., thou who art the king), Jn. xix. 3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Mt. xi. 2 G; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, Jas. v. 1; οὐρανὲ καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι, Rev. xviii. 20; add, Mk. v. 41; x. 47; Lk. xii. 32; xviii. 11, 13; Jn. viii. 10; xx. 28; Acts xiii. 41; Ro. viii. 15; Eph. v. 14, 22, 25; vi. 1, 4 sq.; Rev. xii. 12. f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησὶ μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, Acts xiv. 10 [R G]; xxvi. 24, (Prov. xxvi. 25); γυνὴ προσευχομένη... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, 1 Co. xi. 5; esp. in the expression! ἔχειν τι, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to any one (as in French, il a les épaules larges); so, ἔχειν τὴν χεῖρα ξηράν, Mt. xii. 10 R G; Mk. iii. 1; τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου [(Rec. ἄνθρωπος)], Rev. iv. 7; τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Heb. v. 14; ἀπαράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύνην, Heb. vii. 24; τὴν κατοίκησιν κτλ. Mk. v. 3; τὴν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Pet. iv. 8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. iii. 25. the gen. of a pers. pron. αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Mt. iii. 4; Mk. viii. 17; Rev. ii. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 12, cf. Eph. i. 18; cf. W. § 18, 2; [B. § 125, 5]. g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. W. § 18, 5 and 6; B. § 124, 3 and 4; [Green p. 28 sq.]; α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰης., Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλ., etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's, if xv. 43 (in R G L) be excepted (but Τ Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mk. xv. 45; τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἠσαῦ, Heb. xi. 20, and many other exx., esp. in the genealogies, Mt. i. 1 sqq.; Lk. iii. 23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν νἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Heb. xi. 21; τῶν νἱῶν Ἐμμώρ, Acts vii. 16; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, Mt. xxii. 32; Acts vii. 32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ κ. Ἰσαὰκ... καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας, Lk. xiii. 28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae § 274): let the foll. suffice as exx.: Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν, Jn. viii. 56; Ro. iv. 1; Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Mt. iv. 21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Mt. xxvii. 56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Mt. iii. 1; Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. ix. 7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Mt. i. 16; Σαῦλος δὲ ὁ καὶ Παῦλος sc. καλούμενος, Acts xiii. 9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mk. xiv. 3; Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλός, Mk. x. 46 [R G]; Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Lk. xi. 51. But there are exceptions also to this usage · ὁ δὲ Ἡρώδης ὁ τετράρχης, Lk. iii. 19; τὸν Σαούλ, υἱὸν Κίς, Acts xiii. 21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Ro. i. 1; 1 Co. i. 1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and regions have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Co. ix. 2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Ro. xv. 26; 1 Co. xvi. 5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts vii. 11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, esp. when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπὸ (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts xviii. 2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Mt. iii. 13; Mk. i. 5; Lk. iv. 1; xiii. 4; Jn. i. 28; τοῦ Κεδρών, Jn. xviii. 1 G L Tr mrg. 2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers; a. to nouns accompanied by a gen. of the pronouns μοῦ, σοῦ, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Mt. i. 21, 25; v. 45; vi. 10-12; xii. 49; Mk. ix. 17; Lk. vi. 27; x. 7; xvi. 6; Acts xix. 25 [L Τ Tr WH ἡμῖν]; Ro. iv. 19; vi. 6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Mt. xix. 28; Lk. i. 72; ii. 32; 2 Co. viii. 23; Jas. v. 20, etc.; cf. B. § 127, 27. b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if Jn. iv. 34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, Jn. v. 30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, xvii. 17; ἡ κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 Jn. i. 3; ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος, Jn. vii. 6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῥήμασιν, Jn. v. 47; ἡ ἐμη διδαχή, vii. 16; τὴν σὴν λαλιάν, iv. 42), yet this is always done by the other Ν. Τ. writ., Mt. xviii. 20; Mk. viii. 38; Lk. ix. 26; Acts xxiv. 6 [Rec]; xxvi. 5; Ro. iii. 7, etc. c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive, — as τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον, Gal. vi. 5; ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος, Mt. xii. 35; τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν, Jn. vii. 24; ἡ ἀγαθὴ μέρις, Lk. x. 42; τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Lk. xii. 10; Acts i. 8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, Jn. xvii. 3, and many other exx.; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, Mk. iii. 29; Jn. xiv. 26; Acts i. 16; Heb. iii. 7; ix. 8; x. 15; ἡ ζωὴ ἡ αἰώνιος, 1 Jn. i. 2; ii. 25; ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, Jn. x. 11; τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν, Acts xii. 10, and other exx.; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts [xiv. 10 R G]; xxvi. 24; 1 Co. xi. 5, [cf. B. § 125, 5; W. § 20, 1 c.]. As to the adjectives of quantity, ὅλος, πᾶς, πολύς, see each in its own place. d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις, Rο. ix. 11; ἡ παρ᾿ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Ro. xi. 27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Co. i. 18; ἡ εἰς Χριστὸν πίστις, Col. ii. 5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, 1 Th. i. 8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, 2 Co. viii. 4; see many other exx. of each usage in W. 131 (124) sqq.; [B. 91 (80) sqq.]. e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows [W. § 18, 4; B. § 127, 29-31]; as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, Jn. ix. 24 [οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρ. L Tr mrg. WH]; Acts vi. 13; xxii. 26; ὁ λαὸς οὗτος, Mt. xv. 8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Lk. xv. 30; plur. Lk. xxiv. 17, and numberless other exx.; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Lk. xiv. 30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mk. vii. 6 [ὁ λ. οὗτ. L WH mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ νἱός μου, Lk. xv. 24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Lk. xviii. 11 [ὁ τελ. οὗτ. L mrg.]; οὗτος ὁ λόγος, Jn. vii. 36 [ὁ λόγ. οὗτ. L T Tr WH], and many other exx. on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτὸς ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III. 3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives [cf. W. §34, 2; B. § 128, 1]; as, τὸ ἀγαθόν, τὸ καλόν (which see each in its place); τὸ ἔλαττον, Heb. vii. 7; with a gen. added, τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ, Ro. i. 19; τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Ro. viii. 3; τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ, I Co. i. 25; αὐτῆς, Heb. vii. 18; τὰ ἀόρατα τ. θεοῦ, Ro. i. 20; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Co. iv. 2, etc. 4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Ro. v. 15, 17, the (that) one. So also oἱ δύο (our the twain), Mt. xix. 5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Lk. xvii. 17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καὶ) ὀκτώ, Lk. xiii. 4. 5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives [W. §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; B. §§ 129, 1 b.; 144. 9]; as, ὁ πειράζων, Mt. iv. 3; 1 Th. iii. 5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mk. vi. 14 (for which Mt. xiv. 2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Mt. xiii. 3; Lk. viii. 5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Heb. xi. 28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Lk. vii. 14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Mt. viii. 33; Mk. v. 14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Mt. xiv. 21; τὸ ὀφειλόμενον, Mt. xviii. 30, 34; τὰ ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2). b. the ptcp. with the article must be resolved into he who [and a fin. verb; cf. B. § 144, 9]: Mt. x. 40; Lk. vi. 29; xi. 23; Jn. xv. 23; 2 Co. i. 21; Phil. ii. 13, and very often, πᾶς ὁ foll. by a ptcp. [W. 111 (106)], Mt. v. 22; vii. 26; Lk. vi. 30 [T WH om. L Tr mrg. br. art.]; xi. 10; Ro. ii. 1; 1 Co. xvi. 16; Gal. iii. 13, etc.; μακάριος ὁ w. a ptcp., Mt. v. 4 (5), 6, 10, etc.; οὐαὶ ὑμῖν οἱ w. a ptcp., Lk. vi. 25; the neut. τό with a ptcp. must be resolved into that which [with a fin. verb], τὸ γεννώμενον, Lk. i. 35; τὸ γεγεννημένον, Jn. iii. 6. c. the article with ptcp. is placed in apposition: Mk. iii. 22; Acts xvii. 24; Eph. iii. 20; iv. 22, 24; 2 Tim. i. 14; 1 Pet. i. 21, etc. 6. The neut. τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. B. 261 (225) sqq. [cf. W. § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.]); as, τὸ καθίσαι, Mt. xx. 23; Mk. x. 40; τὸ θέλειν, Ro. vii. 18; 2 Co. viii. 10; τὸ ποιῆσαι, τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Co. viii. 11, and other exx.; τοῦτο κρίνατε · τὸ μὴ τιθέναι κτλ. Ro. xiv. 13. On the infin. w. the art. depending on a preposition (ἀντὶ τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each prep. in its place. b. Much more frequent in the Ν. Τ. than in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ., esp. in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the gen. τοῦ w. an inf. (and in the Sept. far more freq. than in the Ν. Τ.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his Com. on Mt. p. 843 sqq.; W. § 44, 4; B. 266 (228) sqq. The examples fall under the foll. classes: τοῦ with an inf. is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Co. xvi. 4; ἔλαχε, Lk. i. 9 (1 S. xiv. 47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Co. i. 8. β. for the simple expletive [i. e. “complementary”] or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infin., which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase, (where in Germ. zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Co. viii. 11; βραδεῖς, Lk. xxiv. 25; ἐλπίς, Acts xxvii. 20; 1 Co. ix. 10 [not Rec]; ἐζήτει εῦκαιρίαν, Lk. xxii. 6 [not Lmrg.]; ὁ καιρὸς (sc. ἐστί) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Pet. iv. 17 (καιρὸν ἔχειν w. the simple inf. Heb. xi. 15); διδόναι τὴν ἐζουσίαν, Lk. x. 19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple inf., Jn. xix. 10; 1 Co. ix. 4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν (equiv. to ὀφείλομεν), Ro. viii. 12 (with inf. alone, Gal. v. 3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts xxiii. 15 (1 Macc. iii. 58; v. 39; xiii. 37; with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Heb. v. 12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, that they should not see... that they should not hear [cf. B. 267 (230)], Ro. xi. 8 (ἔχειν ὦτα elsewh. always with a simple inf.; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered [cf. B. 1. c.], Lk. i. 57; ἐπλήσθ. ἡμέραι... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him [cf. B. 1. c], Lk. ii. 21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Lk. xvii. 1 [so B. § 140, 15; (W. 328 (308) otherwise)]; quite unusually after ἐγένετο [cf. B. § 140, 16 δ.; W. 1. c], Acts x. 25 [Rec. om. art.]. γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη [-μης Τ Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. α.)], Acts xx. 3; τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Lk. ix. 51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts xxiii. 20 (with inf. alone, Lk. xxii. 5); πρασεύχεσθαι, Jas. v. 17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts xxi. 12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Lk. iv. 10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts xv. 20 (with inf. alone, xxi. 25 [R G T, but L Tr txt. WH here ἀποστέλ.; Β. 270 (232)]); κατανεύειν, Lk. v. 7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing, (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well- known pleonasm with μή before the inf. [see μή, I. 4 a.; B. § 148, 13; W. 325 (305)]; thus, after κατέχω τινά, Lk. iv. 42; κρατοῦμαι, Lk. xxiv. 16; κωλύω, Acts x. 47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts xx. 20, 27; παύω, 1 Pet. iii. 10; καταπαύω, Acts xiv. 18; without μή before the inf. after ἐγκόπτομαι, Ro. xv. 22. ε. τοῦ with an inf. is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Lk. xxi. 22; Acts ix. 15; xiii. 47; Phil. iii. 21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Ro. i. 24 [cf. B. § 140, 14]; W. 325 (305) sq. ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that [W. § 44, 4 b.; B. § 140,17]; esp. after verbs implying motion: Mt. ii. 13; iii. 13; xiii. 3, xxiv. 45; Mk. iv. 3 (where L Τ WH om. Tr br. τοῦ); Lk. i. 77, 79; ii. 24, 27; v. 1 [R G L txt. Tr mrg.]; viii. 5; xii. 42 (here L om. Tr br. τοῦ); xxii. 31; xxiv. 29; Acts iii. 2; xx. 30; xxvi. 18; Ro. vi. 6; xi. 10; Gal. iii. 10; Phil. iii. 10; Heb. x. 7, 9; xi. 5. η. used of result, so that: Acts vii. 19; Ro. vii. 3; after ποιῶ, to cause that, make to, Acts iii. 12; [cf. W. 326 (306); B. § 140, 16 δ.]. 7. The article with adverbs [B. § 125, 10 sq.; W. § 18, 3], a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τὸ πέραν, the region beyond; τὰ ἄνω, τὰ κάτω, τὸ νῦν, τὰ ἔμπροσθεν, τὰ ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places. b. is used when they stand adjectively, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words. c. the neut. τό is used in the acc. absol., esp. in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τὸ πάλιν, 2 Co. xiii. 2; τὰ νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τὸ λοιπόν, τὸ πρότερον (Jn. vi. 62; Gal. iv. 13); τὸ πρῶτον (Jn. x. 40; xii. 16; xix. 39); τὸ πλεῖστον (1 Co. xiv. 27); see these words themselves. 8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought [cf. B. § 125, 9; W. § 18, 3]; thus, οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας, ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts xvii. 13; Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6; ὁ ἔν τινι, Mt. vi. 9; Ro. viii. 1; neut. τὰ πρός, Mk. ii. 2; οἱ ἔκ τινος, Ro. ii. 8; iv. 14, 16; Phil. iv. 22 etc.; οἱ παρά τινος, Mk. iii. 21 (see παρά, I. e.). τὰ περί τινος, Lk. xxiv. 19; Acts xxiv. 10; Phil. i. 27; [add, τὰ (Τ Tr WH τὸ) περὶ ἐμοῦ, Lk. xxii. 37], etc. (see περί, I. b. β.); τὰ. περί τινα, Phil. ii. 23 [see περί, II. b.]; οἱ μετά τινος, those with one, his companions, Mt. xii. 3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other exx. which are given under the several prepositions, the neut. τό in the acc. absol. in adverbial expression!s [cf. W. 230 (216); B. §§ 125, 12; 131, 9]: τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Lk. xi. 3; xix. 47; Acts xvii. 11 [R G WH br.]; τὸ καθόλου, at all, Acts iv. 18 [L Τ WH om. τό]; besides, in τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, as respects human origin, Ro. ix. 5 [on the force of the art. here see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. etc. for 1883, p. 108]; τὰ κατ’ ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Col. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 21; τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Ro. xii. 18; τὸ ἐφ’ ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Ro. xvi. 19 R G; τὰ πρὸς (τὸν) θεόν, acc. absol., as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Ro. xv. 17; Heb. ii. 17; v. 1, (ἱερεῖ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεούς, στρατηγῷ δὲ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, Xen. resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Rom. iii. p. 262 sq.); τὸ ἐκ μέρους sc. ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Co. xiii. 10. 9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates kinship, affinity, or some hind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing [cf. W. § 30, 3; B. § 125, 7]; a. the masc. and the fem. article: Ἰάκωβοw δ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίον, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Mt. x. 2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mk. xvi. 1 [Τ om. Tr br. τοῦ]; Lk. xxiv. 10 [L Τ Tr WH]; Ἐμμὸρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts vii. 16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Οὐρίου, the wife, Mt. i. 6; oἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Co. i. 11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Ro. xvi. 10 sq.; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ [A. V. they that are Christ's], 1 Co. xv. 23 G L Τ Tr WH; Gal. v. 24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mk. ii. 18a Rec, 18b R G L; Καισαρεία ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mk. viii. 27. b. τό and τά τινος: as τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opp. to τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Mt. xvi. 23; Mk. viii. 33; in the same sense τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, opp. to τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Co. vii. 32—34; τὰ τῆς σαρκός, τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, Ro. viii. 5; τὰ ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Co. xii. 14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τινος, 1 Co. x. 24; xiii. 5; Phil. ii. 21; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Ro. xiv. 19; τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Co. xi. 30; τὰ Καίσαρος, τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, due to Cæsar, due to God, Mt. xxii. 21; Mk. xii. 17; Lk. xx. 25; τὰ τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Co. xiii. 11; τὰ τινος, the house of one (τὰ Λύκωνος, Theocr. 2, 76; [εἰς τὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosth. § 12 p. 195]; cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. xiii. 10; [Chrysost. Hom. Iii. (on Gen. xxvi. 16), vol. iv. pt. ii. col. 458 ed. Migne; Gen. xli. 51; Esth. vii. 9, (Hebr. בַּיִת); Job xviii. 19 (Hebr. מָגוּר)]); with the name of a deity, the temple (τὰ τοῦ Διός, Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 18, 2; also τὸ τοῦ Διός, Lycurg. adv. Leocr. p. 231 [(orat. Att. p. 167, 15)]), Lk. ii. 49 (see other exx. in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100). τὰ τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Ro. ii. 14; τὸ τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22; τὰ τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Mt. viii. 33; τὸ τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Mt. xxi. 21. 10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception [B. § 125, 13; W. 109 (103 sq.)]: εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: “If thou canst believe”, Mk. ix. 23 [but L Τ Tr WH τό Εἰ δύνῃ “If thou canst I”]; cf. Bleek ad loc.; [Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.]. before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, “Thou shalt not kill”, Mt. xix. 18; add, Lk. xxii. 37 (where Lchm. ὅτι for τό); Ro. xiii. 9; [1 Co. iv. 6 L Τ Tr WH]; Gal. v. 14. before indir. questions: τὸ τὶς etc., τὸ τί etc., τὸ πῶς etc., Lk. i. 62; ix. 46; xix. 48; xxii. 2, 4, 23 sq.; Acts iv. 21; xxii. 30; Ro. viii. 26; 1 Th. iv. 1; cf. Matthiae § 280; Krüger § 50, 6, 10; Passow ii. p. 395b; [L. and S. s. v. Β. I. 3 sq.]. b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement [reff. as above]: τὸ Ἄγαρ, the name Ἄγαρ, Gal. iv. 25 [T L txt. WH mrg. om. Tr br. Ἄγαρ]; τὸ ‘ἀνέβη’, this word ἀνέβη, Eph. iv. 9, [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.]; τὸ ‘ἔτι ἅπαξ’, Heb. xii. 27; cf. Matthiae ii. p. 731 sq. 11. We find the unusual expression! ἡ οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλίψις [W. 179 (169)]), misery, calamity, [A. V. the Woe], in Rev. ix. 12; xi. 14. III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the Ν. Τ. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (§ 19) and Alex. Buttmann (§ 124, 8) [cf. also Green ch. ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (ed. Rose) pp. 41 sqq., 94 sq.; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Grk. Text of the Ν. Τ., 3d ed. 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819], and only add the foll. remarks: 1. More or less frequently the art. is wanting before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the art. is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἄγιον, ζωὴ αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead [see νεκρός, 1 b. p. 423b]); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law [see νόμος, 2 p. 428a]), κύριος, πατήρ, νἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc. 2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place. or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φνλακήν, ἐν φυλακῇ, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐν πίστεως, κατὰ σάρκα, ἐπ’ἐλπίδα, παρ’ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ’ ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ’ ἀγροῦ, ἐν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρώδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples. ὅ (ho), τε, ἥ, τε, τό, τε, see τέ 2 a. - Ῥοβοάμ (Roboam, 4497), (רְחַבְעָם i. e.”enlarging the people”, equiv. to Εὐρύδημος in Grk., fr. רָחַב and עָם), ὁ, Roboam, Rehoboam, the son and successor of king Solomon: Mt. i. 7.* - Ἀβιά (Abia, 7), indecl. prop. name (Joseph. antt. 7, 10, 3; 8, 10, 1 ὁ Ἀβίας [W. § 6, 1 m.], -α), אֲבִיָּה and אֲבִיָּהוּ (my father is Jehovah), Abia [or Abijah, cf. B. D. s.v.], 1. a king of Judah, son of Rehoboam: Mt. i. 7 (1 K. xiv. 31; xv. 1). 2. a priest, the head of a sacerdotal family, from whom, when David divided the priests into twenty-four classes (1 Chr. xxiv. 10), the class Abia, the eighth in order, took its name: Lk. i. 5.* - Ἀσάφ (Asaph), ὁ, (אָסָף collector), a man's name, a clerical error for R G Ἀσά (q. v.), adopted by L Τ Tr WH in Mt. i. 7 sq.*
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부모(노인)의 별세 창47:9 세상의 나그네길의 험악함 / 창 47: 9 장수 후의 별세는 곡식 결실과 같은/ 욥 5:26 세상 생활은 괴로움 뿐 / 욥 14:1∼2 신속한 세월은 수고로울 뿐 / 시 90:10 육신의 생애는 아침 안개와 같음 / 약 4:13∼15 육신의 생애는 들의 꽃과 같음 / 벧전 1:24 하나님의 보호를 받고 삶 /계 7:13∼17
부활에 관한 성구모음/부활의 유익
부활에 관한 성구모음/부활의 유익 부활의 유익 부활에 관한 성구모음 (고전 15: 17) 그리스도께서 다시 사신 것이 없으면 너희의 믿음도 헛되고 너희가 여전히 죄 가운데 있을 것이요 (고전 15: 54) 이 썩을 것이 썩지 아니함을 입고 이 죽을 것이 죽지아니함을 입을 때에는 사망이 이김의 삼킨 바 되리라고 기록된말씀이 응하리라 (고전 15: 55) 사망아 너의 이기는 것이 어디 있느냐 사망아 너의 쏘는 것이어디 있느냐 (롬 4: 25) 예수는 우리 범죄함을 위하여 내어줌이 되고 또한 우리를 의롭다하심을 위하여 살아나셨느니라 (롬 6: 4) 그러므로 우리가 그의 죽으심과 합하여 세례를 받음으로 그와 함께 장사되었나니 이는 아버지의 영광으로 말미암아그리스도를 죽은 자 가운데서 살리심과 같이 우리로 또한 새생명 가운데서 행하게 하려 함이니라 (롬 8: 11) 예수를 죽은 자 가운데서 살리신 이의 영이 너희 안에 거하시면그리스도 예수를 죽은 자 가운게서 살리신 이가 너희 안에거하시는 그의 영으로 말미암아 너희 죽을 몸도 살리시리라 (벧전 1: 3) 찬송하리로다 우리 주 예수 그리스도의 아버지 하나님이 그 많으신 긍휼대로 예수 그리스도의 죽은 자 가운데서 부활하심으로 말미암아 우리를 거듭나게 하사 산 소망이 있게하시며 (벧전 1: 21) 너희는 저를 죽은 자 가운데서 살리시고 영광을 주신 하나님을그리스도로 말미암아 믿는 자니 너희 믿음과 소망이 하나님께있게 하셨느니라 (골 3: 1) 그러므로 너희가 그리스도와 함께 다시 살리심을 받았으면 위엣것을 찾으라 거기는 그리스도께서 하나님 우편에앉아 계시느니라 (골 1: 5) 너희를 위하여 하늘에 쌓아둔 소망을 인함이니 곧 너희가 전에 복음 진리의 말씀을 들은 것이라 (엡 2: 5) 허물로 죽은 우리를 그리스도 예수와 함께 살리셨고 (너희가 은혜로 구원을 얻은 것이라) (고전 15: 21) 사망이 사람으로 말미암았으니 죽은 자의 부활도 사람으로 말미암는도다 (고전 15: 12) 그리스도께서 죽은 자 가운데서 다시 살아나셨다 전파되었거늘 너희 중에서 어떤이들은 어찌하여 죽은 자 가운데서 부활이 없다 하느냐 (고전 15: 13) 만일 죽은 자의 부활이 없으면 그리스도도 다시 살지못하셨으리라 (고전 15: 42) 죽은 자의 부활도 이와 같으니 썩을 것으로 심고 썩지 아니 할것으로 다시 살며 (고전 15: 43) 욕된 것으로 심고 영광스러운 것으로 다시 살며 약한 것으로 심고 강한 것으로 다시 살며 (고전 15: 44) 육의 몸으로 심고 신령한 몸으로 다시 사나니 육의 몸이 있은즉 또 신령한 몸이 있느니라 (고전 15: 45) 기록된바 첫 사람 아담은 산 영이 되었다 함과 같이 마지막 아담은 살려 주는 영이 되었나니 (고전 15: 46) 그러나 먼저는 신령한 자가 아니요 육 있는 자요 그 다음에 신령한 자니라 (고전 15: 50) 형제들아 내가 이것을 말하노니 혈과 육은 하나님 나라를 유업으로 받을 수 없고 또한 썩은 것은 썩지 아니한 것을유업으로 받지 못하느니라 (롬 4: 25) 예수는 우리 범죄함을 위하여 내어줌이 되고 또한 우리를 의롭다하심을 위하여 살아나셨느니라 (엡 1: 18) 너희 마음눈을 밝히사 그의 부르심의 소망이 무엇이며 성도안에서 그 기업의 영광의 풍성이 무엇이며 (엡 1: 19) 그의 힘의 강력으로 역사하심을 따라 믿는 우리에게 베푸신능력의 지극히 크심이 어떤 것을 너희로 알게 하시기를 구하노라 (엡 1: 20) 그 능력이 그리스도 안에서 역사하사 죽은 자들 가운데서다시 살리시고 하늘에서 자기의 오른 편에 앉히사 (엡 1: 21) 모든 정사와 권세와 능력과 주관하는 자와 이 세상뿐 아니라오는 세상에 일컫는 모든 이름 위에 뛰어나게 하시고 (엡 1: 22) 또 만물을 그 발 아래 복종하게 하시고 그를 만물 위에 교회의 머리로 주셨느니라 (엡 1: 23) 교회는 그의 몸이니 만물 안에서 만물을 충만케 하시는 자의 충만이니라 (엡 2: 1) 너희의 허물과 죄로 죽었던 너희를 살리셨도다 (엡 2: 2) 그 때에 너희가 그 가운데서 행하여 이 세상 풍속을 좇고공중의 권세 잡은 자를 따랐으니 곧 지금 불순종의 아들들가운데서 역사하는 영이라 (엡 2: 3) 전에는 우리도 다 그 가운데서 우리 육체의 욕심을 따라 지내며 육체와 마음의 원하는 것을 하여 다른이들과 같이 본질상 진노의자녀이었더니 (엡 2: 4) 긍휼에 풍성하신 하나님이 우리를 사랑하신 그 큰 사랑을인하여 (엡 2: 5) 허물로 죽은 우리를 그리스도 예수와 함께 살리셨고 (너희가 은혜로 구원을 얻은 것이라) (엡 2: 6) 또 함께 일으키사 그리스도 예수 안에서 함께 하늘에 앉히시니 (엡 2: 7) 이는 그리스도 예수 안에서 우리에게 자비하심으로써 그은혜의 지극히 풍성함을 오는 여러 세대에 나타내려 하심이니라 (엡 2: 8) 너희가 그 은혜를 인하여 믿음으로 말미암아 구원을얻었나니 이것이 너희에게서 난 것이 아니요 하나님의 선물이라 (엡 2: 9) 행위에서 난 것이 아니니 이는 누구든지 자랑치 못하게함이니라 (엡 2: 10) 우리는 그의 만드신바라 그리스도 예수 안에서 선한 일을위하여 지으심을 받은 자니 이 일은 하나님이 전에 예비하사우리로 그 가운데서 행하게 하려 하심이니라 (고전 15: 58) 그러므로 내 사랑하는 형제들아 견고하며 흔들리지 말며 항 상주의 일에 더욱 힘쓰는 자들이 되라 이는 너희 수고가 주안에서 헛되지 않은 줄을 앎이니라 (고후 4: 14) 주 예수를 다시 살리신 이가 예수와 함께 우리도 다시 살리사 너희와 함께 그 앞에 서게 하실 줄을 아노니 (고전 15: 42) 죽은 자의 부활도 이와 같으니 썩을 것으로 심고 썩지 아니할 것으로 다시 살며 (고전 15: 43) 욕된 것으로 심고 영광스러운 것으로 다시 살며 약한 것으로 심고 강한 것으로 다시 살며 (고전 15: 44) 육의 몸으로 심고 신령한 몸으로 다시 사나니 육의 몸이 있은즉 또 신령한 몸이 있느니라 구세주에게 (롬 1: 4) 성결의 영으로는 죽은 가운데서 부활하여 능력으로 하나님의 아들로 인정되셨으니 곧 우리 주 예수 그리스도시니라 (행 10: 40) 하나님이 사흘만에 다시 살리사 나타내시되 (행 5: 30) 너희가 나무에 달아 죽인 예수를 우리 조상의 하나님이 살리시고 (행 5: 31) 이스라엘로 회개케 하사 죄 사함을 얻게 하시려고 그를오른손으로 높이사 임금과 구주를 삼으셨느니라 (빌 2: 9) 이러므로 하나님이 그를 지극히 높여 모든 이름 위에 뛰어난 이름을 주사 (빌 2: 10) 하늘에 있는 자들과 땅에 있는 자들과 땅 아래 있는 자들로 모든 무릎을 예수의 이름에 꿇게 하시고 (빌 2: 11) 모든 입으로 예수 그리스도를 주라 시인하여 하나님 아버지께 영광을 돌리게 하셨느니라 (엡 1: 19) 그의 힘의 강력으로 역사하심을 따라 믿는 우리에게 베푸신 능력의 지극히 크심이 어떤 것을 너희로 알게 하시기를 구하노라 (엡 1: 20) 그 능력이 그리스도 안에서 역사하사 죽은 자들 가운데서다시 살리시고 하늘에서 자기의 오른 편에 앉히사 (엡 1: 21) 모든 정사와 권세와 능력과 주관하는 자와 이 세상뿐 아니라 오는 세상에 일컫는 모든 이름 위에 뛰어나게 하시고 (엡 1: 22) 또 만물을 그 발 아래 복종하게 하시고 그를 만물 위에 교회의 머리로 주셨느니라 (엡 1: 23) 교회는 그의 몸이니 만물 안에서 만물을 충만케 하시는 자의 충만이니라 죄인에게 (행 17: 31) 이는 정하신 사람으로 하여금 천하를 공의로 심판할 날을작정 하시고 이에 저를 죽은 자 가운데서 다시 살리신 것으로모든 사람에게 믿을만한 증거를 주셨음이니라 하니라 마귀에게 (히 2: 14) 자녀들은 혈육에 함께 속하였으매 그도 또한 한모양으로 혈육에함께 속하심은 사망으로 말미암아 사망의세력을 잡은 자 곧 마귀를 없이 하시며 (계 20: 10) 또 저희를 미혹하는 마귀가 불과 유황 못에 던지우니 거기는 그 짐승과 거짓 선지자도 있어 세세토록 밤낮 괴로움을 받으리라 안식일과의 관계에 있어서 (행 20: 7) 안식 후 첫날에 우리가 떡을 떼려 하여 모였더니 바울이이튿날 떠나고자 하여 저희에게 강론할새 말을 밤중까지 계속하매 (고전 16: 2) 매주일 첫날에 너희 각 사람이 이를 얻은대로 저축하여 두어 서내가 갈 때에 연보를 하지 않게 하라 (히 7: 12) 제사 직분이 변역한즉 율법도 반드시 변역하리니 부활의 상징 (롬 6: 3) 무릇 그리스도 예수와 합하여 세례를 받은 우리는 그의 죽으심과 합하여 세례 받은 줄을 알지 못하느뇨 (롬 6: 4) 그러므로 우리가 그의 죽으심과 합하여 세례를 받음으로 그와 함께 장사되었나니 이는 아버지의 영광으로 말미암아그리스도를 죽은자 가운데서 살리심과 같이 우리로 또한 새생명 가운데서 행하게 하려 함이니라 (롬 6: 5) 만일 우리가 그의 죽으심을 본받아 연합한 자가 되었으면 또한 그의 부활을 본받아 연합한 자가 되리라 (롬 6: 6) 우리가 알거니와 우리 옛 사람이 예수와 함께 십자가에 못 박힌것은 죄의 몸이 멸하여 다시는 우리가 죄에게 종노릇 하지아니하려 함이니 (롬 6: 7) 이는 죽은 자가 죄에서 벗어나 의롭다 하심을 얻었음이니라 (롬 6: 8) 만일 우리가 그리스도와 함께 죽었으면 또한 그와 함께 살줄을 믿노니 (롬 6: 9) 이는 그리스도께서 죽은 자 가운데서 사셨으매 다시 죽지아니 하시고 사망이 다시 그를 주장하지 못할줄을 앎이로라 (롬 6: 10) 그의 죽으심은 죄에 대하여 단번에 죽으심이요 그의살으심은 하나님께 대하여 살으심이니 (롬 6: 11) 이와 같이 너희도 너희 자신을 죄에 대하여는 죽은 자요그리스도 예수 안에서 하나님을 대하여는 산 자로 여길지어다 (골 2: 11) 또 그 안에서 너희가 손으로 하지 아니한 할례를 받았으니 곧육적 몸을 벗는 것이요 그리스도의 할례니라 (골 2: 12) 너희가 세례로 그리스도와 함께 장사한바 되고 또 죽은 자들 가운데서 그를 일으키신 하나님의 역사를 믿음으로 말미암아 그 안에서 함께 일으키심을 받았느니라 (골 2: 13) 또 너희의 범죄와 육체의 무할례로 죽었던 너희를하나님이 그와 함께 살리시고 우리에게 모든 죄를 사하시고